In this article we will discuss about the Conditions and Classification of Renal Calculi.
Conditions of Renal Calculi Formation:
a. Low urine volume due to warm climates or low intake of water.
b. Consumption of diets rich in calcium, phosphates, oxalates and purines.
c. Conditions accelerating increased excretion of uric acid, oxalic acid, calcium, and phosphates in urine.
d. Urine infection and stagnation.
Classification of Renal Calculi:
Renal Calculi can be classified into the following four groups:
a. Calculi due to Calcium Oxalate and Phosphates:
High concentration of calcium oxalates and phosphates in urine forms stones which are hard, white, and radio-opaque.
b. Urate Stones:
This is due to hyperuricemia and gout. These stones are usually small and yellowish brown in colour.
c. Cystine Stones:
These are rare but only happens in cystinuria.
d. Xanthine Stones:
These are also rare but only happens in xanthinuria.