This article throws light upon the top nine Climatic Zones of the World. The climatic zones are: 1. Polar and Sub Polar Zone 2. Boreal Zone 3. Humid Mid Latitude Zone 4. Arid Mid-Latitude Zone 5. Tropical and Subtropical Arid Zone 6. Mediterranean Subtropical Zone 7. Seasonal Tropical Zone 8. Humid Subtropical Zone 9. Humid Tropical Zone.
Climatic Zone # 1. Polar and Sub Polar Zone:
This zone includes the Arctic and Antarctic regions. It is associated with tundra vegetation. The Arctic tundra regions have low rainfall evenly distributed throughout the year. Summers are short, wet and cool. Winters are long and cold. Antarctic is an icy desert, although summer warming around the fringes causes it to bloom.
Climatic Zone # 2. Boreal Zone:
This is cold-temperature belt that supports coniferous forest (taiga). It usually has cool wet summers and very cold winters lasting at least six months. It is found only in the Northern Hemisphere where it forms a circumpolar zone.
Climatic Zone # 3. Humid Mid Latitude Zone:
This is the temperate or nemoral zone. This zone supports broad leaved deciduous forests. It has a short cold winter and a warm or even hot summer.
Climatic Zone # 4. Arid Mid-Latitude Zone:
This is the cold-temperature (continental) belt. The difference between summer and winter temperatures is marked and rainfall is low. This region support semi-desert vegetation.
Climatic Zone # 5. Tropical and Subtropical Arid Zone:
This is a hot desert climate that supports thorn and scrub savanna and hot deserts and semi desert.
Climatic Zone # 6. Mediterranean Subtropical Zone:
This is a belt lying between roughly 35° and 45° latitude in both hemispheres with winter rains and summer drought. It supports sclerophyllous (thick leaved), woody vegetation adapted to drought and sensitive to prolonged frost.
Climatic Zone # 7. Seasonal Tropical Zone:
This zone extends from roughly 25° to 30° North and South. There is a marked seasonal temperature difference. The vegetation is tropical grassland or savanna.
Climatic Zone # 8. Humid Subtropical Zone:
This zone has almost no cold winter season and short wet summers. It is the warm temperate climate in Walter’s zonobiome classification. Vegetation is subtropical broad – leaved evergreen forest.
Climatic Zone # 9. Humid Tropical Zone:
This zone has rain throughout the year and supports evergreen tropical rain forest. The climate is said to be diurnal because it varies more by day and night than it does through the seasons.
In ocean, there are three Eco zones viz., polar zone, the temperate zone and the tropical zone:
1. Polar zone:
Polar zone is ice covers. The polar seas in winter are full of ice. Polar seas are greenish, cold and have a low salinity.
2. Temperate zone:
Temperate seas are very mixed in character. They include regions of high salinity in the subtropics.
3. Tropical zone:
Tropical seas are generally blue, warm and have a high salinity. On the whole each climatic zone or Eco zone supports several characteristic and communities of animals and plants, and is thus designated as biomes. Between two biomes, there are transitional zones where the climate changes from one type to the next. These are called Eco tones.
The climate and major forest types are depicted in Fig. 4.13.
Fig. 4.13: Climate and Forest Type