The upcoming discussion will update you about the differences between Gymnosperms and Angiosperms.
Difference # Gymnosperms:
1. The sporophylls are aggregated to form cones.
2. Cones are generally unisexual, rarely bisexual.
3. Cones do not possess perianth or sepals and petals.
4. Sporophyll bearing central axis is usually elongated.
5. Microsporophyll often contains a broad, sterile head. Distinction into anther and filament is absent.
6. Number of microsporangia per microsporophyll varies from 2 in Pinus to several hundred in Cycas.
7. Megasporophyll is commonly woody.
8. Megasporophyll is unrolled.
9. Stigma and style are absent.
10. Ovules are not borne on a placenta.
11. Ovules lie exposed on the megasporophyll.
12. Ovules are sessile.
13. An ovule is covered by a 3-layered massive integument having a wide micropyle.
14. The female gametophyte is large and parenchymatous.
15. The female gametophyte contains distinct archegonia.
16. Pollination is direct, that is, pollen grains directly enter the ovule and come to lie over the nucellus.
17. Male gametophyte contains one or two prothalial cells, a tube cell, a stalk cell and a body cell which divides to form 2 male gametes.
18. Only one gamete is functional as there is only one type of fertilization or generative fertilization.
19. Endosperm is a pre-fertilisation structure and represents the food laden female gametophyte.
20. Seeds develop exposed on the megasporophyll. A fruit is never formed.
21. The embryo may contain one to several cotyledons.
Difference # Angiosperms:
1. The sporophylls are aggregated to produce flowers.
2. Flowers are generally bisexual, rarely unisexual.
3. The flowers usually contain perianth or sepals and petals.
4. Sporophyll bearing thalamus is generally short.
5. Microsporophyll is represented by a stamen. A stamen consists of a terminal broad anther and a lower stalk or filament.
6. Number of microsporangia or pollen sacs per stamen is commonly four, rarely two.
7. Megasporophyll is delicate.
8. Megasporophyll is rolled to form a carpel.
9. The two are present.
10. Ovules are attached to placenta.
11. Ovules occur covered inside the ovary part of the carpel.
12. Ovules are borne on a stalk or funiculus.
13. An ovule is covered by one or two thin integuments having a narrow micro Pyle.
14. The female gametophyte is represented by seven-celled and 8- nucleate embryo sac.
15. Archegonia are absent.
16. Pollination brings the pollen grains on the special receptive surface of the megasporophyll called stigma.
17. Male gametophyte consists of a tube cell and a generative cell which divides to form two male gametes.
18. There is double fertilisation, that is, both the male gametes are functional, one performing generative fertilisation and other vegetative fertilisation or triple fusion.
19. Endosperm is a post-fertilisation structure and represents a new triploid material.
20. Seeds develop inside the ovary part of the carpel which matures into a fruit.
21. The embryo contains one or two cotyledons.