The following points highlight the five main types of oil plants. The types are: 1. Castor Seed 2. Yellow Sarson 3. Sesame 4. Eucalyptus Oil 5. Peppermint.
Type # 1. Castor Seed or Castor Bean (Hindi – Arandi):
Ricinus communis L.
1. These are the seeds of Ricinus communis, a member of family Euphcrbiaceae.
2. Plant is a tall shrub with large rounded, partly lobed leaves and big terminal branches of flowers.
3. Seeds are oblong with crustaceous seed coat (Fig. 79).
4. The leaves are applied on head to relieve headache.
5. Oil obtained from seeds, called castor oil, is used as a purgative.
6. Castor oil is also used in making contraceptive jellies, washing powders and creams.
7. Because of a very low freezing point, castor oil ideally suits for the lubrication of aeroplane engines.
8. The oil is also used for transparent soaps, typewriter-inks, paints and varnishes.
9. It is also used for preparation of hair oils, hair fixers, hair lotions, lipsticks and aromatic perfumes.
10. Seed cake is used as fertilizer.
11. Writing- and printing papers are made from its wood pulp.
12. The alkaloids ricinine and toxalhuminricin are obtained from the plant.
Type # 2. Yellow Sarson or Indian Colza (Hindi – Sarson):
Brassica campestris var. sarson (Now Brassica napus L. var. glauca (Roxb.) Schulz.)
Cruciferae or Brassicaceae.
1. It is the most common edible, oil-yielding plant (Fig. 80).
2. Oil is obtained from the seeds.
3. Oil content varies from 30 to 45%.
4. Oil is widely used for cooking.
5. Oil is also used in lamps, in the manufacture of soap and rubber substitutes.
6. Oil cake is used as a cattle feed.
7. Seeds are used as condiment in preparation of pickles and for flavouring curries.
8. The leaves and tender twigs are cooked as a vegetable named “Sarson-Ka-Saag”.
Type # 3. Sesame or Gingelly Oil (Hindi – Til):
Sesamum indicum L.
1. The seeds of this herb yield an edible oil used in confectionery and for making margarine, soaps, cosmetics, insecticides, perfumes and several medicines.
2. Seeds are used as topping the bread and rolls and in religious ceremonies by Hindus.
3. Oil cake is a good cattle feed.
4. Sesame flour is also used as protein source in nitrogen balance among children.
5. Hair lices are killed by the mucilaginous juice of the plant.
6. India, China, Sudan, Myanmar, Pakistan and Mexico are the major sesame oil-producing countries. In India, it is grown In U.P., M.P., Rajasthan, Gujarat, Orissa, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
Type # 4. Eucalyptus Oil:
Eucalyptus citridora Hook., E. globulus Labill, E. rostrata Schlecht.
1. Essential oil obtained from the leaves of these and several other species of Eucalyptus is used in perfumery.
2. The oil is also a source of citronellal used for manufacture of citronellol and menthol.
3. The eucalyptus oil is also used in several germicides and disinfectants.
4. The oil from the leaves and terminal branchlets of E. globulus is used as mosquito repellent.
5. In cinema halls, eucalyptus oil is used as an ingredient of deodorizing and asepticizing compositions.
6. Oil is also used in curing bronchitis and asthma.
7. Wood pulp of these species is used in manufacture of good quality writing- and printing paper.
8. These trees are also valuable as shade and shelter trees.
9. An excellent charcoal is prepared from E. rostrata.
10. Extensive plantations of E. citridora has been undertaken during last few decades in U.P., Haryana, Punjab and Andhra Pradesh. E.globulus is cultivated mainly at hill stations of India. Large scale plantations of E. rostrata have recently been made in U.P., M.P. and Karnataka.
Type # 5. Peppermint (Hindi – Vilaiti Pudina):
Labiatae or Lamiaceae
1. The oil obtained from the leaves is widely used in perfumes and various types of soaps.
2. Medicinally the oil is used as carminative, stimulant and for treating nausea and vomiting.
3. Oil is also used widely in rheumatic pains, cough syrups, mouth washes and inhalations.
4. Several headache ointments are also prepared from peppermint.
5. Its leaves are also used for flavouring purposes.
6. It is widely cultivated in Punjab, Maharashtra and Kashmir.