We can control deficiency diseases by taking balanced diet but there are some other diseases which are due to the malfunctioning of our body organs, these organs are pancreas, heart, kidney, eye lens and bone joints.
These diseases are also called degenerative disease.
The cells of pancreas are called islets of langerhans which secrete a hormone called insulin. When insulin is not secreted by these cells in enough amount, the body can neither use the sugar nor can store in the liver in the form of glycogen, the body tissues do not set it in sufficient amount but blood contains extra sugar and sugar level becomes high in blood as sugar passes out through the urine this is called diabetes.
Frequent need of urinate, excessive thirst and loss of weight are the symptoms of this disease. The diabetes is detected by the test of urine. The diet of diabetics must be controlled and anti-diabetic tablets must be taken, insulin injections are also taken to control this disease.
The blood vessels that supply blood to the heart muscles are the coronary arteries. These arteries become hard due to atherosclerosis and blood supply is reduced due to which heart muscles do not get proper supply of oxygen this is known as coronary heart disease, it can lead to angina which is a temporary chest pain. In this, disorder called atherosclerosis, the inner lining of arteries become hard and thick due to the deposition of fatty and waxy material called cholesterol, due to this inner diameter of arteries is reduced and normal flow of blood becomes difficult, increasing the blood pressure high.
There are two coronary arteries right and left, arising from the base of aorta and supply blood to heart muscles, blockage at these arteries result a myocardial infraction or heart attack. Great pressures in the chest, sweating nausea are the symptoms of a heart attack.
Arthritis is a joint disease, this is of two kinds.
Swelling pain and stiffness of joints are the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, if the condition of the patient deteriorates, it results in joint deformities and crippling (Fig. 9.2). The best treatment is to take proper rest.
This deformity results from bone swelling. The symptoms are Knobby enlargement of the end and middle joints of the fingers. It effects hip, knees and spine.
Cancer is uncontrolled cell division leads to abnormal growth which invade adjacent tissues and may interfere with their activities. The branch of science study cancer is called oncology. There are some kinds of cancer such as, carcinomas are malignant tumors of epithelial cells, sarcomas, are cancer of connective tissues and myelomas are malignant tumors of bone marrow. Leukemia is a kind of blood cancer in which number of WBC increase enormously.
The basic cause of cancer is yet to be known. Tobacco, cigarette smoking may be the cause of cancer. Cancer may develop in any body part such as lymph glands, lungs, pancreas, liver, bladder, prostate gland and bone marrow, in male. Skin, breast, kidney, colon, ovary and uterus are the sites of cancer in females.
There may be some dangerous signals of cancer which are:
1. Unusual bleeding from any body part.
2. Chronic indigestion.
3. Permanent hoarseness (rough and harsh) of voice.
4. Unusual lump in any body part.
Malfunctioning of kidney:
Many bio-chemical reactions take place in our body due to which various products are formed, some are harmful for the body, these harmful products are removed from the blood by the process of filtration in the kidney and urea, uric acid are removed from the body. Due to some reasons if kidney is malfunctioning and waste materials are accumulating in the body, the condition is called uremia. High fever, headache and extreme fatigue may be the symptoms for the patient and patient may go under coma condition.
An allergy is an unusual hypersensitivity of body tissues to certain substance under certain condition. These substances which bring unusual sensitivity are known as allergens. These allergens may be certain perfumes, cosmetics, drugs, foods, pollen grains, smoke, dust, fruits, pulses, rice. Allergy leads to reactions on body, sometimes these reactions are mild and sometimes are severe. Diarrhea, swelling on face, itching, redness on skin, sneezing are the symptoms of allergy. Even some time, some medicines may be allergy causing. HAY FEVER and ASTHMA are two common allergies.