Our country is an agricultural country. Majority of Indian population lives in villages.
A large part of total energy used in rural India comes from fuel wood, agriculture wastes, cow’s dung (gobar), whereas most of the energy consumed in cities is derived from coal, petroleum, natural gases (CNG), hydel power, solar, wind and nuclear power.
The layers of dead plants and animals were covered with soil and rocks, due to the heat and pressure of the earth these layers are converted into fuels like coal and petroleum.
These fuels give energy on burning. Hence, these fuels are called fossil fuels. All fossil fuels are obtained from organic matter. The amount of heat liberated on burning determines the quality of fuel.
Amount of the heat liberated when one gram of fuel is completely burnt is called calorific value. Higher the calorific value, better the fuel. The formation rate of fossil fuels is very slow. These fuels are being used more quickly than being replaced and these fuel cannot be recycled we have an urgent need to conserve the resources of fuels to avoid shortage in the future.
We should keep some factors in the mind to stop the wastage of fuels:
1. We should use bicycle for short distances.
2. Switch off lights and fans if there is no one in the room.
3. For cooking, pressure cookers and LPG should be used.
4. We should use local trains or local transport systems rather than our cars.
5. We should use efficient cars.
6. If it is possible we should use motorcycles or scooters to save petrol.
7. Solar energy should be preferred.
Alternate Sources of Energy:
Alternate sources of energy are renewable sources which can be used effectively.
Plant and animal materials are changed into fuels to get biomass energy.
1. Cow dung cakes are used in the village to get energy.
2. Animal waste like, animal dung, poultry waste, excreta of other animals, plant waste like grass and husk are kept in biogas plant. Biogas which is used as an excellent fuel and after the formation of gas the residue left in biogas plant is used as manure. Biogas is a mixture of methane and hydrogen
3. Domestic sewage which includes human excreta is used in sewage gas plants to produce sewage gas.
Sun is the source of enormous amount of energy, this energy travels in the form of photons. The solar energy is being trapped and converted into thermal and electrical energy. The heat generating solar collector can be utilized for cooking food, heating US water, drying grains and vegetables. Salt water is converted into potable fresh water by using solar energy.
India is the first country in the world to start regular large scale manufacture and marketing of solar cookers. Two experimental solar thermal power plants have been commissioned by the government. Electricity can be generated directly from sunlight with the help of solar photovoltaic technology (SPV).
Solar cell is used to convert sunlight directly into electricity. When a number of such solar cells are connected together to make a solar panel, which produce enough power to operate a water pump. Solar cooker is a black painted wooden box from insides with a glass cover on the top. A plane mirror is attached to the box acting like a reflector of sunlight. The food which need slow heating is kept in containers painted black.
A solar water heater is a device that uses solar energy to heat water. The solar panels of solar heater act like a greenhouse to collect heat from the sun. The trapped heat warms water running through the copper pipes. This hot water can then be pumped through radiations to provide hot water for various purposes.
A solar furnace is an expensive device to generate high temperature up to 3000’c .In this, mirrors are used to focus sunlight fallings over a large area, onto a small area. A number of solar panels provide electricity to run the electricity equipment’s on a satellite in outer space.
The kinetic energy of flowing water has been used by man since early times. The electricity is generated by this flow of water. Hydroelectric the dam is allowed to Power produced in a dam flow through the tunnels with high pressure to move turbines. Thus, the potential energy of the water is converted into electrical energy by turbines and generators. Bhakra dam is one of the best hydel power project in India.
Wind energy is another source of energy which has been used by man for a long time. The wind turns the blades of windmills the blades of windmills. The turning blades of windmills produce kinetic energy, kinetic energy is used for various purposes. Today, there are several wind farms having hundred of windmills, have been set up in our country to produce electricity.
Energy from earth’s heat:
Energy which comes from heat under the earth’s surface is called geothermal energy . The temperature inside the earth is still very high, steam from deep underground is now being used to provide heat and energy. The scientists in England and the USA are drilling holes deep underground, and pump cold water down the holes, when it gets to the bottom of natural heat of the earth turn into steam. The steam that comes up turns turbines of generators and electricity is produced.
Nuclear energy is produced by the nuclear fission process. Nuclear energy is obtained by the splitting of atoms in nuclear reactors at atomic power stations, and this nuclear energy is used to produce electricity. In most of the countries in the world electricity is produced by nuclear energy. Nuclear fission produces radioactive waste which is very harmful for the life.
Some Atomic Power stations in India are as follows:
1. Rana Pratap Sagar near Kota in Rajasthan.
2. Tarapore, 80 km. North of Mumbai.
3. Kalpakkam, 70 km. South of Chennai.
4. Narora Atomic power plant at Narora, about 60 km from Bulandshahar, (U.P.).
5. Kakrapar, in Gujarat.
6. Kaiga Nuclear Power project, at Karnataka.
Reduce, Reuse, Recycle:
We should be very much aware towards the conservation of resources we should keep following three factors in our mind.
We should use the energy when required. No wastage should be done.
Repair and use again.
Recycle the resources for using again. We should take some individual steps to save environment and natural resources, each one of us in our own way can contribute to protect our environment.
1. Avoid deforestation.
2. We should do plantation.
3. Avoid wastage of clean water.
4. Never uproot wild and small plants.
5. During brushing and shaving we should close the tap.
6. We should use public transport system.
7. Use bicycles for short distances.
8. Minimum use of electricity should be done.