In this article we will discuss about Common Nosocomial Infections:- 1. Types of Common Nosocomial Infections 2. Prevention of Common Nosocomial Infections.
Types of Common Nosocomial Infections:
1. Urinary tract infection:
About 40% of hospital acquired infections occur in the urinary tract and are usually associated with catheterisation and instrumentation of urethra, bladder or kidneys. Initial infection is caused by Esh. coli, Staph, epidermidis and Enterococcus, but later on invaded by Klebsiella, Proteus, Serratia, Pseudomonas and Providencia sp.
2. Infection of the lower respiratory tract:
Some (15-20%) of all hospital acquired infections are of the lower respiratory tract which are the leading causes of mortality. The important pathogens are Gram-negative bacilli, Staph, aureus. The most frequently recovered Gram-negative bacilli are Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Serratia, Proteus, Esch.coli, Ps. aeruginosa.
These organism reach the lower respiratory tract by aspiration from the pharynx causing necrotising bronchopneumonia.
3. Wound and skin sepsis:
Infection of surgical wounds and other soft tissues is about 18% of the hospital acquired infections. In the elderly patients above the age to 60, the incidence of post-operative infections. The most important predominant pathogen is Staph, aureus, which is followed by Ps. aeruginosa and other Gram-negative bacilli.
Gastrointestinal infections-Food poisoning salmonella infection and neonatal septicaemia in hospitals have been reported. Salmonella infection are associated with poultry or meat.
Prevention of Common Nosocomial Infections:
Prevention can be achieved by following means:
1. Administration of antibiotics and antiseptic therapy to the carrier staff or source patient to destroy the pathogenic microorganisms. Before administering therapy, the organism is to be isolated and antibiotic sensitivity test is to be done.
2. An infectious patient is to be isolated.
3. Proper sterilisation and disinfection of the inanimate objects in the hospital environment should be done. Thus the source of infection can be controlled.
4. Disinfection of excreta and infected material is necessary to control the exit point of infection.
5. The transmission route is to be controlled by regular hand washing, disinfection of equipment and change of working clothes.
6. By vaccination e.g. tetanus, gas gangrene and Hepatitis B, the susceptible host can be protected.