In this article we will discuss about twelve types of fibre and fibre plants with their utilization:- 1. Coir 2. Cotton 3. Flax 4. HEMP 5. Jute 6. KENAF 7. KAPOK 8. Manila Hemp 9. Pine Apple 10. Ramie 11. Sisal Hemp 12. Sunn Hemp.
Botanical Name: Cocos nucifera L.
Vernacular name: English— Coconut, Hindi— Narial.
Tamil: Thennai, Kalpakauircutcham, Telugu— Tankayi, Kobbarichetue, Kannada — Tenginegide.
Part used: Mesocarp, fibre.
1. Floor covering, rope, packaging material.
2. Rubberized coir is used for making cushion.
3. Coir yarn is used for making fenders which are attached to ships and boats for preventing Collision and shock.
4. Hard boards made up of Coconut husk shorts and coir dusts are durable, smooth, insect proof and water repellant.
5. Coir waste has been recently used in the manufacture of coirolite by incorporating with resins.
Botanical Name: Gossypium arboreum Linn, G.hirsutum Linn.,
Vernacular Name: Hindi—Kapas, Assamese — Kapah, Bangali — Karpas, Oriya— Kapa, Telugu— Pratti, Tamil — Paruthi. Kanadda — Hatti, Marathi— Kapus, Punjabi — Kapah. Plant part used: Surface fibre, (Epidermal cells of seed coat).
1. Lint fibre is used for clothing household and industrial articles.
Botanical Name: Linum usitatissimum L.
Vernacular name: English— Flax, Linseed; Hindi, Punjabi — Alsi, Tisi; Gujrati, Marathi— Alashi, Bengali— Mosina, Telugu — Avisi; Tamil — Alsivirai.
Part used: Stem fibre.
1. Flax fibre is stronger than cotton and linen.
2. The fibre quality is very good. It is durable, strong, and glossy.
3. Manufacture of strong cordage.
4. Cheap and rough textile e.g., blankets, carpets.
5. Galicha (carpet), mat mattresses.
6. Fine fabrics like Linso—fabric.
7. Straw board, parchment paper, cigarette paper and writing paper etc.
Botanical name: Cannabis sativa Linn.
Vernacular name: Hindi— Bhang, English— Hemp, Telugu— Ganzai, Kapam chettu, Kannada— Bhangi
Part used: Bast fibre obtained from secondary phloem.
1. Manufacture of Tarpaulin, carpet yarn, fine cordage, Sail cloth etc.
2. Green fibre used as substitute for jute.
3. Loose fibre is used for caulking boats, engines pumps etc.
Botanical Name: Corchorus capsularis L., C. olitorius L.
Vernacular name: Hindi: Gutipat, Mietha pat, Jute; Sanskrit— Patta; Telugu— Jamapanara; Part used: Bast fibre
1. It is an important textile fibre second to cotton
2. Yarn of the fibre is used to make fabrics, coarse sacking, and package material
3. Filling material (for Sofa, Cushion) ropes.
4. Cloth made for purpose of upholstery, Linoleum, Tapestry etc.
Botanical name: Hibiscus cannabinus L.
Vernacular name: Hindi— Patwa, English— Bimlipatam Jute, Marathi— Jute kenaf, Deccan Hemp, Telugu— Gongura.
Plant part used: Fibre extracted from inner part of cortex outside the cambium layer.
1. Fibre is comparable to Jute in texture.
2. Used for rope and cordage.
3. Fishing nets, strings for rafters.
4. Coarse convas, sacks, matting, rugs, gynny bags etc.
Botanical name: Ceiba pentandra (L) Gaertn.
Vernacular name: Hindi— Safed simal; Sanskrit— Sweta salmali;
Telugu— Telia buraga; English— white silk cotton tree or True kapok tree.
Plant part used: Cells of inner epidermis of epicarp
1. Silk cotton is used in bedding and upholstery industry.
2. Production of life saving equipment.
3. Production of insulated and sound proof walls of cinema halls.
4. For manufacture of life jackets, belts, waistcoats etc.
5. Also used for insulating tanks, aviation mats etc.
6. It is not good for textile purposes as the fibre is brittle and fragile.
8. Manila Hemp:
Botanical name: Musa textiles Nees.
Plant part used: Fibre is extracted from leaf sheath (counter and middle layer). Resistant to microbial rotting and salt water.
1. To manufacture Ropes, Cables.
2. For making ship’s cables and riggings.
3. For manufacture of tough paper.
9. Pine Apple:
Bot. Name: Ananses comosus (Linn) Perr.
Vernacular name: Hindi— Ananas
Plant part used: Leaf fibre. (Two year old leaf)
1. Ropes, fishing net, strings are made from it.
2. Pina; a delicate fabric of the Philippines is made from this fibre.
3. Waste after extraction of fibre is used for paper making.
Botanical name: Boehmeria nivea Gaud.
Vernacular name: China grass
Plant part used:
Stem fibre, longest (40-200 mm); toughest, Silky fibre. Resistant to the action of water
1. Fibre used in Europe for sacks, belting, table cloth, nets, threads, cordage.
2. Gas mantle is manufactured.
3. Not a fibre of textiles.
4. It is mixed with silk and cotton to make some fabrics.
11. Sisal Hemp:
Botanical name: Agave sisalane Perr.
Vernacular name: Sisal hemp.
Part used: Bast fibre. It recembles jute and bimli fibre in appearance. It is silky, soft, white, pale yellow or brown.
1. A substitute of jute used for cordage, Rope, fishing net etc.
2. Bags are used in Java for packing sugar.
12. Sunn Hemp:
Crotolaria juncea L.
Vernacular name: Hindi & Sanskrit — Sanai, Telugu— Janumu, Tamil— Sadambu;
Part used: Bast fibre
1. Cordage fibre and used is making ropes, cords, cordages etc.
2. Sunhemp is used for making fishing nets and marine cordage. It is resistant to deterioration in water.
3. It is used for manufacture of sail-cloth, sacking, matting, rope soles of shoes, canvas etc.