The upcoming discussion will update you about the difference between monocot and dicots.
a. Number of Cotyledons:
The actual basis for distinguishing the two classes of angiosperms is the number of cotyledons found in the embryo, and is the source of the names Monocotyledonae (one cotyledon) and Dicotyledonae (two cotyledons).
In monocots, there are usually a number of major leaf veins, which run parallel the length of the leaf whereas in dicots, there are usually numerous auxiliary veins, which reticulate between the major ones. This character is also not always reliable, as there are many monocots with reticulate venation, example the Aroids and Dioscoreales.
c. Vascular Arrangement of Stem:
Vascular bundles within the stem of dicots are arranged to form a cylinder, appearing as a ring across the stem. On the other hand in monocots, the vascular bundles appear scattered through the stem, with more of the bundles located toward the periphery of the stem than in the centre. This arrangement is unique to monocots and some of their closest relatives among the dicots.
d. Root Development:
In most dicots the radicle (the part of the embryo from which the root develops) gives rise to an apical meristem, which continues to produce root tissue for most part of the plant’s life. However in monocots, the radicle aborts and new roots arise adventitiously from nodes in the stem.
e. Number of Flower Parts:
The monocot flowers tend to have a number of parts that is divisible by three, usually three or six. Dicot flowers on the other hand, tend to have parts in multiples of four or five (four, five, ten, etc.)-.This character is however not always reliable, and is not easy to use in some flowers with reduced or numerous parts.
f. Pollen Structure:
In the monocots, the pollen are characterized with a single furrow or pore through the outer layer (monosulcate), but most dicots have descended from a plant which developed three furrows or pores in its pollen (tri-porate).
g. Secondary Growth:
Most dicots increase their diameter through secondary growth, producing wood and bark. Monocots (and some dicots) on the other hand have lost the ability of secondary growth, and so do not produce wood. Some monocots can produce a substitute however, as in the palms and agaves.