Learn about the difference between Mitosis and Meiosis.
Difference # Mitosis:
1. The cell divides only once.
2. Mitosis takes place in the somatic cells.
3. Mitosis occurs both in sexually as well as asexually reproducing organisms.
4. The DNA replicates once for one cell division.
5. The duration of prophase is shorter.
6. Mitosis is comparatively simple and has no subdivision.
7. The two homologous chromosomes are not attracted towards each other.
8. Synaptonemal complex is not formed.
9. Each chromosome consists of two chromatids united by a centromere.
10. Chiasma formation and crossing over do not take place.
11. In the metaphase plate, all the centromeres line up in the same plane.
12. Chromosomes are arranged at the equator.
13. In the metaphase, the chromosome is a diad, consisting of two chromatids only.
14. Chromosomes are comparatively longer and thin.
15. The centromere of each chromosome splits into two to form two chromatids.
16. The movement of two chromatids towards the opposite poles of spindle takes place.
17. The daughter chromosome appears in single state.
18. As a result of mitosis two cells are formed.
19. The chromosome number remains constant in daughter cells at the end of mitosis.
20. The genetic constitution of the daughter cells is identical to the parent cells.
Difference # Meiosis:
1. There are two cell divisions, the first and the second meiotic division.
2. Meiosis takes place in the germ line cells.
3. Meiosis occurs only in sexually reproducing organisms.
4. The DNA replicates once for two cell divisions.
5. Meiosis is much longer than that of mitosis.
6. Prophase is complicated and is divided into several sub-stages (leptotene, zygotene, pachytene, diplotene, diakinesis).
7. During zygotene two homologous chromosomes attract each other forming bivalent due to synaptic attraction.
8. Synaptonemal complex is formed.
9. In each bivalent there are four chromatids and two centromeres.
10. Chiasma formation and crossing over takes place between the homologous chromosomes.
11. In metaphase I, the centromeres are lined up in two planes which are parallel to one another.
12. Bivalents are arranged at the equator.
13. The bivalents are in the form of tetrads consisting of four chromatids.
14. Chromosomes are very shortened and thickened.
15. Centromeres do not divide in anaphase I but the homologous chromosomes of each pair simply separate out into diads.
16. The movement of each separated homologous chromosome towards the opposite pole takes place.
17. The separated chromosomes are with two chromatids.
18. As a result of meiosis four cells are formed.
19. The chromosome number is reduced to half in the daughter cells from that of the parent cells.
20. The genetic constitution of the daughter cells differs from that of the parent cells. Daughter cells contain a mixture of maternal and paternal genes.