The upcoming discussion will update you about the difference between mitosis and meiosis of cell division.
Difference # Mitosis:
1. It occurs continuously in the body or somatic cells.
2. Its main purpose is the growth in the body.
3. The whole process completes in one sequence or phase.
4. It completes in a short period, and not divided into subsequent stages.
5. In mitosis the homologous chromosome (the maternal as well as paternal) undergo replication and duplicate into two chromatids. New chromosomes are formed by the separation of two chromatids. One chromatid of each of this maternal and paternal chromosome passes into the daughter cell. Therefore, the character and the number of chromosomes of parental cells are maintained by the daughter cells.
6. There is no pairing or synapsis between the homologous chromosomes.
7. No crossing over takes place.
8. Chromosomes duplication takes place in the early prophase stage.
9. There occurs no pairing of chromosomes.
10. In between the homologous chromosomes there is no exchange of genetic material.
11. The chromatids are present in the form of dyads.
12. The centromeres of the dyads remain directed towards the equator.
13. The centromeres do not divide mainly because they represent identities.
14. The chromosomes are thin and long.
15. The chromatids are paired.
16. The telophase is of universal occurrence.
17. The telophase is single.
18. After mitosis, the chromosome number of each daughter cell remains the tame at that of the parent cell.
19. From one diploid cell, two diploid cells are formed in the process of mitosis.
20. The characters shown by the parent cells are also shown by the daughter cells formed after mitosis.
21. Mitosis has no effect on the occurrence of variation in nature.
Difference # Meiosis:
1. Meiosis occurs in the reproductive or germ cells.
2. Its main purpose is the continuation of progeny.
3. It is completed in two successive divisions or phases which come one after the other.
4. It completes in comparatively longer duration, and is divided into five sub-stages, i.e., leptotene, zygotene, pachytene, diplotene and diakinesis.
5. In meiosis, out of the two homologous chromosomes, only one type of chromosome (i.e., either maternal or paternal) move to the daughter cells. Therefore, a daughter cell receives either a maternal or a paternal chromosome of the homologous pair. Thus the chromosome number in the daughter cell remains half than that of the parental cells.
6. In meiosis the pairing or synapsis occurs between the homologous chromosomes.
7. Crossing over takes place in meiosis.
8. Chromosome splitting or duplication takes place in the late prophase stage.
9. Pairing of homologous chromosomes takes place. This pairing results into the formation of bivalents.
10. In between the homologous chromosomes or chromatids, the exchange of genetic material takes place.
11. The chromatids of two homologous chromosomes are in the form of tetrads.
12. The centromeres of the tetrads face towards the poles.
13. The centromeres divide into two.
14. The chromosomes are thick and short.
15. The chromatids are unpaired, i.e., either maternal or paternal.
16. The first telophase may or may not occur.
17. The telophases are two in number.
18. After meiosis, the chromosome number in each daughter cell is reduced to half than that of the parent cell.
19. From a diploid ceil, four haploid cells are formed in the process of meiosis.
20. The resultant daughter cells exhibit different characters than that of their parent cell.
21. Meiosis is responsible for the occurrence of variations in nature.