The upcoming discussion will update you about the differences between Mitosis and Meiosis.
Difference # Mitosis:
1. Mitosis takes place in the somatic cells.
2. The cells undergoing mitosis may be haploid or diploid.
3. It is a single division which produces two cells.
4. Interphase occurs prior to each division.
5. Mitosis is comparatively simple.
6. It takes less time to complete.
7. A cell can undergo repeated mitosis.
8. Subsequent mitotic divisions are similar to the earlier ones.
9. Each chromosome replicates in the interphase before every division.
10. The number of chromosomes remains the same after mitosis.
11. The daughter nuclei or cells formed after mitosis are exactly similar to the parent one.
12. Meiosis helps in multiplication of cells.
13. Mitosis takes part in healing and repair.
14. No variations are introduced.
15. Chromomeres are not conspicuous.
16. Prophase is of shorter duration.
17. Prophase is simpler and is hardly distinguishable into sub-stages.
18. Each chromosome has two distinct chromatids.
19. No bouquet stage is recorded.
20. Pairing of chromosomes does not occur in mitosis.
21. A synaptinemal complex is absent.
22. Crossing over is absent.
23. Chiasmata are absent.
24. Centromeres produce a single metaphasic plate.
25. Chromosomes are independent and do not show connections.
26. Only the centromeres lie at the equator. The limbs of chromosomes are oriented in various directions.
27. A centromere is connected with both the spindle poles.
28. Two chromatids of a chromosome are genetically similar.
29. A centromere splits length-wise to form two centromeres in the beginning of anaphase.
30. Anaphasic chromosomes are single stranded.
31. Similar chromosomes move towards the opposite poles in anaphase.
32. Telophase is longer and produces interphase nuclei.
33. Cytokinesis follows every mitosis. It produces two new cells.
Difference # Meiosis:
1. It occurs either in the reproductive cells or at the time of germination of zygote or zygospore.
2. The cells undergoing meiosis are always diploid.
3. Meiosis is a double division. It gives rise to four cells.
4. Interphase precedes only meiosis I. It does not occur prior to meiosis II.
5. Meiosis is quite complicated.
6. It takes longer time to complete.
7. Meiosis occurs only once.
8. The two divisions of meiosis are not similar. The first one is heterotypic or reductional while the second one is homotypic or equational like mitosis.
9. The chromosomes replicate only once, prior to meiosis.
10. The number of chromosomes is reduced to one half after meiosis.
11. The daughter nuclei or cells formed after meiosis are neither similar to the parent one nor to one another.
12. Multiplication of cells is not involved.
13. Meiosis takes part in the formation of meiospores or gametes and maintenance of chromosome number of the race.
14. It introduces variations.
15. Chromomeres are quite conspicuous.
16. Prophase I is of longer duration while prophase II is very brief.
17. Prophase I is complicated and is divisible into five sub stages. Prophase II is, however, very simple.
18. Chromosomes of prophase I do not show distinct chromatids.
19. Chromosomes of animals and some plants show convergence towards one side during early prophase I. It is known as bouquet stage.
20. Pairing or synapsis of homologous chromosomes takes place during zygotene of prophase I and continues upto metaphase I.
21. Synapsed homologous chromosome develop a synaptinemal complex.
22. Crossing over or exchange of similar segments between non-sister chromatids of homologous chromosomes usually takes place during pachytene stage.
23. Chiasmata or visible connections between homologous chromosomes of bivalents are observed during diplotene, diakinesis (pro-phase I) and metaphase I.
24. A double metaphasic plate is formed by centromeres in metaphase I but only one in metaphase II.
25. Homologous chromosomes are inter-connected. Hence the chromosomes occur in pairs or bivalents in metaphase I. They are, however, free in metaphase II.
26. Limbs of the chromosomes mostly lie at the equator while the centromeres project towards the poles in metaphase I.
27. A centromere is connected to one spindle pole in metaphase I but both in metaphase II.
28. The two chromatids of a chromosome are often genetically different due to crossing over.
29. Centromeres do not divide during anaphase I but do so in anaphase II.
30. Chromosomes are double stranded in anaphase I but single stranded in anaphase II.
31. Dissimilar chromosomes move towards the opposite poles both in anaphase I and anaphase II.
32. Telophase I is shorter and nuclei never enter the interphase.
33. Cytokinesis often does not occur after the first or reductional division. It is then simultaneous after second division to result in four new cells.