The upcoming discussion will update you about the differences between Stem and Root.
Difference # Stem:
1. Stem arises from the plumule of embryo.
2. Stems are generally green, at least in the young state.
3. It generally forms the ascending or above ground part of the plant (several exceptions).
4. Stem is differentiated into nodes and internodes.
5. Stem bears leaves and buds on its nodes.
6. A root cap or any other equivalent structure is absent.
7. Stem is generally positively phototropic, negatively hydrotropic and negatively geotropic.
8. The growing point of the stem is protected by young leaves.
9. The tip of stem possesses terminal bud.
10. Growing point is terminal.
11. Stem generally possesses multicellular hairs.
12. Stem hairs are found all over the stem.
13. Stem hairs prevent the evaporation of water from the surface.
14. The branches are exogenous or superficial in origin.
15. Stem branches develop from nodes.
16. Stem branches are formed from axillary buds.
1. Cells of the epidermis have cutinised outer walls. A separate non-cellular layer of cuticle may also be formed on the outside.
2. Epidermis is protective in function.
3. Stomata are found on the stem.
4. Stem hairs usually do not arise as outgrowths of epidermal cells.
5. A colienchymatous or sclerenchymatous hypodermis is found below the epidermis.
6. A few outer cells of the ground tissues may contain chloroplasts.
7. Cortex is narrow.
8. Endodermis is not conspicuous.
9. Pericycle, when present, is usually multi-layered.
10. Pericycle does not take part in secondary growth.
11. Vascular bundles are conjoint and collateral.
12. Secondary vascular growth, when present, is by cambium which is both intra-fascicular and inter-fascicular.
13. Xylem is endarch.
14. Xylem and phloem contain fibres.
15. The chief functions of the stem are storage, conduction and photosynthesis.
Difference # Root:
1. Roots arises from the radicle of the embryo. It may also arise from any other part of the plant.
2. Roots are non-green.
3. The root is generally the descending or underground part of the plant (several exceptions).
4. Nodes and internodes are absent.
5. Both leaves and buds are absent.
6. A root cap is formed at the tip of the root.
7. Root is positively geotropic and hydrotropic, neutral or negatively phototropic.
8. The growing point of the root is protected by root cap.
9. A terminal bud is absent.
10. Growing point is sub-terminal.
11. Root hairs are always unicellular.
12. Root hairs are restricted to a particular area called root hair zone.
13. Root hairs help in the absorption of water from the soil.
14. The root branches are endogenous or deep seated.
15. Root branches do not arise from specific areas.
16. Root branches do not arise from buds.
1. Functional epiblema is without any cuticle or cutinised outer walls.
2. Young epiblema is absorptive in function.
3. Stomata are always absent.
4. Root hairs are tubular outgrowths of the epidermal cells.
5. Hypodermis is usually absent in young roots. A thick-walled exodermis is present in some cases.
6. Chloroplasts are almost invariably absent.
7. Cortex is broad.
8. Endodermis is conspicuous.
9. Pericycle is commonly 1 -2 layered.
10. Pericycle is active in the formation of root branches and development of secondary growth.
11. Vascular bundles are radial, i.e., phloem and xylem bundles are separate and are found on different radii.
12. Secondary vascular growth when present arises from conjunctive parenchyma and pericycle.
13. Xylem is exarch.
14. Fibres are generally absent.
15. The chief functions of the root are absorption of water and mineral salts and anchorage.