The problems of flood is found in many parts of the world. The effect of its hazard is different in different countries, the main reason being its management.
Calamity of flood is a grave problem of any natural type, resulting in many disorders. On one side, new deposits are collected due to flood whereas on the other side, fast erosion also takes place.
Flood damages natural ground morphology and manmade structures as well as causes loss of life. According to UNEP Report (1992), 6,592 persons lost their life due to floods from 1960 to 1990.
From the point of view of flood hazards, Mississippi and Missouri rivers of United States of America are of devastating nature. Terrible floods caused by these rivers create a scene of ruin. The catchment area of these rivers spreads over 40 per cent of the geographical area (except Alaska and Hawaii Islands) of United States of America.
Flow route of this river is very comprehensive. Except meanders, the direct distance of Mississippi is only 960 km, whereas the actual distance (as per actual route) is 2,720 km. The average slope of its flow route is 3 centimeter per km. In its speeded meandered way, catastrophic floods are caused due to torrential rain etc. on account of atmospheric turbulence (Hurricane and Tornado).
In March 1927, the effect of its flood was to the optimum limit. About 180 lakh acre area was affected and 313 persons died. Its companion rivers Missouri, Ohio, Tennesse and Arkansas also contribute to floods caused by this river.
Flood situation in America is mainly caused by cyclonic wrath. Due to the Hurricane during 19th to 27th June 1972 in United States of America, there was 150-230 millimetre rainfall in southern provinces, and 350 millimetre rainfall in Virginia, Maryland and Delaware provinces. It caused heavy damages in Pennsylvania.
Hwangho river of China is called ‘Sorrow of China’ because of its flood hazard. Devastating floods are caused in Yangtse River also. In June 1999, with the first rain of the monsoon, the calamity of heavy flood devoured about 725 persons. According to media, 4,100 persons died at that time and 5.5 million people were affected. As per Ministry of Urban Affairs of China, 11.31 million hectare crop area was damaged due to floods in 23 provinces of China.
In the continent of Europe, flood hazard in 2002 caused a great damage in mid Europe. Water level of river Danube in Hungary crossed all danger marks. The one hundred year old Parliament building of located in the capital of Budapest had to bear the risk of flood. Before water receded, it left a thick layer of mud and filth and loss of thousands of millions of dollars.
The water level of Danube River had reached a record rise of 8.48 metres in Budapest. Huge devastation was caused during this year by Waltava river in Czek and Prague Republic, Drasden, Elbe River in Germany and Danube River in Hungary. Not only was there loss of lives and goods but valuable historical and cultural heritage was also destroyed due to floods.
Loss of 1,000 crore dollars was estimated alone in Germany. Drasden of East Germany looked like a big lake due to floods. A few tall houses looked like small islands at some places. Elbe river water had drowned Raisa Torgau town of Drasden. Water level of Muld River in Roitushj near Liepzig had also crossed all danger marks.