In this essay we will discuss about Hepatitis C Virus (HCV). After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Introduction to Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) 2. Hepatitis D Virus (HDV) 3. Delta Hepatitis (Delta Agent) 4. Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) 5. Clinical Features of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) 6. Laboratory Diagnosis of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) 7. Control and Prevention of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV).
- Essay on the Introduction to Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)
- Essay on the Hepatitis D Virus (HDV)
- Essay on Delta Hepatitis (Delta Agent)
- Essay on the Hepatitis E Virus (HEV)
- Essay on the Clinical Features of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)
- Essay on the Laboratory Diagnosis of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)
- Essay on the Control and Prevention of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)
Essay # Introduction to Hepatitis C Virus (HCV):
Hepatitis C virus infection is curable if the treatment is undertaken at the right time, if untreated it can prove fatal in the long run. The infection involves an initial (acute) phase which is often asymptomatic and can last up to six months.
In 65 to 85 percent cases the immune system is not able to eradicate the virus and these people develop a long term (chronic) infection. Chronic infection, after many years can lead to cirrhosis, liver failure, liver cancer and death.
The virus can be transmitted to other members of the family via blood or blood transfusion or blood products from the infected person. Since Hepatitis C virus infection is blood borne it is compulsory to check blood before transfusion to the patient.
Articles (razors, syringes, tampons) used by the patients are to be completely destroyed as they can become a potential source for viral spread. HBV and HCV can be transmitted during dental surgery. This infection can be confirmed by a special test called HCV RNA. Pegylated interferon in combination with an oral drug (Ribavirin) is available. It can cure the infection up to 80 per cent cases. No vaccine is available.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) or Non-A Non-B (ANB) Virus in dental operation. Cases of clinically viral hepatitis without defined aetiology, after isolation of HBV in 1960s and HAV in 1970s, occurred after blood transfusion and led to chronic hepatitis. Thus the term non-A non-B (NANB) hepatitis was used.
NANB virus is 30-60 nm in diameter and has been recently identified by molecular cloning technique and termed as HCV which can spread during dental surgery.
Essay # Hepatitis D Virus (HDV):
A new viral antigen was found in the nuclei of hepatocytes of patients infected with HBV and found to be related to a new virus—now named as HDV. HDV (Fig. 54.1) is an incomplete single stranded circular RNA virus. HDV requires HB Ag for its hepatotropism and propagation, but does not depend on HBV for replication. Replication of HDV is associated with liver damage suggesting that HDV may be directly hepatotoxic.
Essay # Delta Hepatitis (Delta Agent):
A new antigen-antibody system, termed antigen (delta antigen) and antibody (anti-delta; is detected in some HBV infection. The antigen is found in certain HBsAg particles and is distinct from antigenic determinants of HBsAg. It has a particle size of 35-37 nm. The delta antigen is believed to be a defective virus that replicates in HBV infected cells and acquires an HBsAg coat.
Essay # Hepatitis E Virus (HEV):
In 1983, Virus—like particle (VL P ) measuring 27-32 nm were demonstrated by immune electron microscopy in the stools of the cases of HEV infection in CIS. The first and massive outbreak of enteric non-A non-B epidemic was reported in 1955 in New Delhi (India) when drinking water was contaminated by overflow of an open sewer.
Out of 29,000 affected, 10% women were in their third trimester of pregnancy and died of fulminant hepatic failure. It is confirmed as faecal orally transmitted type non-A non-B hepatitis. The treatment is purely supportive.
Essay # Clinical Features of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV):
Clinical distinction among hepatitis A, hepatitis B and non-A, non-B hepatitis is not possible. In viral hepatitis, onset of jaundice is often preceded by gastrointestinal symptoms—nausea, vomiting, severe anorexia and fever that may mimic influenza, jaundice may appear within few days, but anicteric hepatitis is clinically mild.
Extra-hepatic manifestations of viral hepatitis include:
(1) A transient serum sickness-like prodrome (urticaria, rash, polyarthralgia or arthritis;
Essay # Laboratory Diagnosis of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV):
HAV antigen has been detected in the liver, stool, bile and blood by Radioimmunoassay (RIA). The most specific and sensitive methods to detect HBsAg or anti-HBs are RIA and ELISA.
These assays and the red cell agglutination (RCA) technique or Reverse Passive Haemagglutination (RPHA, Fig. 8.8) which employs anti-HBs-coated cells in a microtiter system has replaced counter immuno-electrophoresis as the method of choice for detecting HBsAg.
A Recombinant Immunoblot Assay (RIBA) is more sensitive and specific to diagnose HCV infection. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and molecular hybridisation could detect successfully serum HCV RNA. The diagnosis of different forms of HDV infection relies in detection of HD Ag in liver bio-spies and Hd Ag, HDRNA, IgM and IgG in serum.
Essay # Control and Prevention of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV):
(1) Clothes of jaundice patients should be washed separately in boiling water;
(2) Jaundice patients should be kept in isolation wards;
(3) All syringes, needles and equipment’s should be autoclaved to prevent the entry of hepatitis B virus in the body;
(4) Australia antigen test should be conducted by the most sensitive method to detect HB Ag in:
(a) Jaundice patients
(b) Blood donors
(c) Persons to be operated;
(5) Cleanliness and hygiene should be maintained at all public places;
(6) Drinking water should be chlorinated;
(7) Laboratory investigators should wear gloves, while testing sera of patients;
(8) Used materials and glass wares should be discarded in formalin (1: 4,000).
(9) Laboratory and hospital ward should be fumigated.