Reproductive health is defined as a state of physical, mental and social well-being in all matters relating to the reproductive system, at all stages of life.
Simply it refers to healthy reproductive system with its normal functions. According to World Health Organization (WHO) reproductive health means a total well-being in all aspects of reproduction.
Good reproductive health implies the people have the capability to reproduce, have a satisfying and safe sex life and have the freedom to decide when and how often to do so. Men and women should be informed about and have access to safe, effective, affordable and acceptable methods of family planning of their choice.
Everyone has the right to appropriate healthcare services which enable a woman to safely go through pregnancy and childbirth.
Problems and Strategies:
According to WHO reports, out of global burden of ill health, reproductive and sexual ill-health accounts for 20% for women and 14% for men.
1. Family Planning:
The programme of family planning was initiated in 1951 to achieve total reproductive health. Main problem of India is its excess population which is directly connected with reproductive health.
2. Maternal Health:
Early child bearing can have health risk for women and their infants. A girl before 18 years of age is not matured with respect to her reproductive system to bear a child. At least two years gap is necessary before going for the second issue.
3. Proper Medical Care:
The WHO estimates that each year 358000 Women die due to complications related to pregnancy and childbirth. 99% of these deaths occur in poorest countries of the world. Most of these deaths can be avoided with improving women’s access to quality care from skilled medical professionals before, during and after pregnancy and child birth.
Audio-visual and print media, government and non-government agencies are creating awareness among people about reproductive health. Parents, close relatives, friends and teachers also have a major role in giving these information’s.
5. Sex education:
Sex education should be introduced and encouraged in schools to provide right information about myths and misconceptions about sex related issues.
6. Access to reproductive and sexual health:
Family planning counselling, pre-natal care, safe delivery, post-natal care, appropriate treatment of infertility, prevention of abortion, treatment of sexually transmitted diseases, responsible parenthood, services against HIV/ AIDS, breast cancer should be made available.
7. Birth control devices:
Fertile couples and people of active sex life should know about available birth control devices.
8. Prevention of sex abuse and sex related crime:
These are social evils which can be controlled by proper law and order as well as public awareness. This will build up a reproductively healthy society.
9. Misuse of Amniocentesis:
Amniocentesis is a method of sex determination of foetus. Chromosomal study of amniotic fluid cells can determine the sex of the foetus and also to identify any abnormality in number of chromosomes to detect any serious incurable congenital defect so that the foetus may be aborted. But, this technique is being used to kill normal female foetus. It is legally banned to avoid female foeticide.