India has over 441 animal sanctuaries, referred to as wildlife sanctuaries (under IUCN category IV protected area).
Among these are 28 Tiger Reserves which are governed by Project Tiger and are of special significance in the conservation of tiger. Many national parks were initially Wild Life sanctuaries.
A sanctuary is a protected place or area with Natural environment having optimum conditions and protection for wild animals. Shooting and hunting are prohibited in a sanctuary. But the degree of protection is lower than a national park. Manipulation up to an extent is allowed with permission of competent authority which does not harm wild life.
Operations such as harvesting of timber, collection of minor forest products and private ownership rights are allowed so long as they do not affect the animals adversely. A sanctuary is established by notification of the state Forest Department and can be abolished by similar procedure. The main purpose is to provide protection to wild and indigenous animals.
A few examples are given above:
The protected area network of Odisha is spread over a sprawling area of 6611.2 sq. kms. The wild life of Odisha is cradled very lovingly in 19 sanctuaries, a national park and one proposed national park (biosphere reserve). The wild life parks cover about 4.25% of the geographical area of the state.
Man-made areas or zoological gardens are where animals are confined within enclosures and displayed to the public. Here animals are allowed to breed in captivity. The central Zoo Authority of India (CZA) is the governing authority of all zoos of India and is an associate member of the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA).
Zoological garden is a place for ex situ conservation of wildlife (conservation outside natural habitats). Many of the zoos have well developed captive breeding programmes. Besides, the animal breeders and genetic engineers get ready source of genetic materials for research and conservation of wild species. Over and above the scientific values, zoos provide tremendous recreational opportunities for residents as well as tourists.
There are 800 professionally managed zoos in the world with about 3000 species of mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians. In India there are 275 zoos, deer parks, safari parks, aquaria etc. Govt. of India has set up a Central Zoo Authority for better management of Indian Zoos.
Nandankan zoo is a part of Nandankanan sanctuary located close to Bhubaneswar in the district Khurda of Odisha. Alipore Zoo Kolkata (WB), Chennai Snake Park (Tamil Nadu), National Zoological Park (Delhi), Nehru zoological Park, Hyderabad (A.P.) are some of the important zoos in India.