In this article we will discuss about the purpose and basic steps of genetic engineering.
Purpose of Genetic Engineering:
The interest in genetic engineering principally is due to its varied applications (Fig. 22.1):
1. Production of varieties of plants having particular desirable characteristics (e.g., resistance or tolerance to disease, drought, ‘development of CMS line, etc.).
2. Improvement in the production of bio-chemical’s and commercially important organic chemicals.
3. Correction of genetic disorder in higher organisms.
4. The sequencing of gene, the prerequisite for mapping the genome as well as utilizing the gene for horizontal transfer involved in raising transgenic organism.
Basic Steps of Genetic Engineering:
In principle the recombinant DNA technology involves certain basic steps, such as (Fig. 22.2):
1. Isolation of the gene (target DNA) to be cloned.
2. Insertion of the gene into another piece of DNA called a vector which allows it to be taken up by the recipient cell and replicated.
3. Transfer of the recombinant vectors into cells of recipient organisms, either by transformation or by infection using viruses.
4. Selection of those cells which contain the desired recombinant vectors.
5. Growth of the transformed organism.
6. Expression of the gene to obtain the desired product.