After reading this article you will learn about:- 1. Different Forms of Water in the Garden 2. Shape, Size and Depth of Water Garden.
The evolution of life began in the water where simple form to complex from of life of flora and fauna developed. Water allows to perform various physiological and biochemical actions necessary for the growth and development of life. Therefore, the settlement of human life started near the water i.e. near rivers, lakes or seas.
In water ecosystem, various forms of plant developed according to the depth of water, pH, presence of nutrients and salts, etc. In different situations like salty water of sea, sweet water of rivers and lakes, marshy lands, various kind of vegetation developed. Amongst various kinds of water plants, few plants produced most exquisite flowers which caught the attention of plant and garden lovers.
The most common with beautiful flowers are lotus and water lilies. Lotus is the national flower of India and is associated with Lord Vishnu who appeared in sitting posture on lotus during the process of churning of sea or holding of lotus flower in his hand has been depicted in most of the paintings.
The presence of water in the garden in the various styles and forms add the beauty of garden tremendously. It symbolizes and signifies the importance of physical and spiritual life in various ways.
It performs following functions in the garden:
1. It serves as source for watering, irrigation and is used for running fountains or creating water fall.
2. It provides freshness and coolness in the garden.
3. Standing water in the form of pool or vast water body provides quietness and calmness ideal for meditation or for watching-reflections of big building, clouds, blue sky, sun, moon, or stars, lofty trees, etc.
4. Running water in the form of fountains, water fall, chadar, canals, signifies the movement of the life, happiness and joyousness. Ripples of water create ethereal sound which gives unique heavenly feelings.
Different Forms of Water in the Garden:
Basically water is present in the garden in the following forms:
1. Standing water:
It is very common feature of Japanese gardens and is present in the form of small or big lakes, or informal water body. This gives impression of vastness and mysticism. It provide ideal environment for meditation and worship. The reflection of trees, blue sky, clouds, buildings, moon, sun, stars, etc. add the beauty of the garden.
2. Running water:
It is present in the garden in the form of canal, fountains, water falls, etc. Since water is always in movement which signifies movement of life, vibrancy, happiness and joyousness. There is a great amount of variation of fountains are available and suitable types are selected according to the design and requirement.
There are various situations in the garden where water pond of different sizes can be made. In certain situations, there may not be sufficient space to make a good size pond however still it can be made in the form of small, sunken or trough to hold some amount of water sufficient to plant a dwarf size water lily and it adds tremendous charm to a garden.
Shape, Size and Depth:
These are three main parameters which are very important and to be decided with great care. The shape depends upon garden style. For formal garden the shape can be of any geometric shape like square, rectangular, circular, star shaped, etc. whereas for informal gardens the irregular shape suiting to surrounding are made. The size of water body depends upon the size of garden and it should be in proportion to the size of garden so that it harmonizes well with surroundings. Out of proportion will create visual tension and irritation.
The depth of pool depends mostly on the effects desired. On an average depth of 60-70 cm is considered to be an ideal but some time it is upto 1.20-1.50 meter. Shallow ponds are easy to clean and maintain in comparison to deeper ponds.
Very recently the concept of rock garden and water pond has been in practice. Large variations in size and designs are being constructed. In deeper pool, two levels are created. At the bank shallow planters 30-60 cm wide, are made all along the perimeter and filled with garden soil + FYM and planting is done suitably. Two types of water bodies are generally constructed keeping the level of ground in view.
(i) At ground level:
This is most common and widely used. In this, level of water pool and ground is the same so that construction becomes very easy, less expensive and easy to maintain. This type of water easy to maintain. This type of water pond merges very well comfortably with the design of garden and soundings. However, during cleaning operations pumping out the water from the pond may be somewhat troublesome.
(ii) Above the ground level:
The construction of such type is done above the ground therefore the construction becomes little more expensive. Though these type are not very common but are constructed in limited garden despite of its high cost of construction.
In this case cleaning is very easily done as water is drained out due to gravity and this water can be used for irrigating garden beds. It is also constructed to break the plain level of garden and extra water is made to fall from one side or all four sides in the form of chadar or small fall. The beauty is enhanced tremendously.