In this article we will discuss about:- 1. Introduction to Directorate of Onion and Garlic Research 2. Mandate of DOGR 3. Breeding Projects 4. Germplasm Strength 5. Important Varieties.
Introduction to Directorate of Onion and Garlic Research (DOGR):
Onion and garlic are the world famous spice commodities, used for flavouring the dishes. Besides culinary purposes, these are considered as valuable medicinal items. The fungicidal and insecticidal properties of garlic are well identified. Dehydrated powder and flakes prepared out of onion and garlic provide rich agro-industrial base for these commodities.
India ranks second in area (5.28 and 1.71 lakh hectares) and production (74.51 and 9.23 lakh tons) of onion and garlic, respectively, next to China. Besides meeting domestic requirements, India exports 10.0 to 11.0 lakh tons of onion worth Rs.1000 crores. Over last 25 years the production of onion has increased from 25.04 to 74.51 lakh tons, while that of garlic from 2.16 to 9.23 lakh tons.
The horizontal growth in area has contributed to total production rather than vertical growth per unit area. The productivity of both, onion (14 t/ha) and garlic (5.39 t/ha) is far low as compared to Netherlands, USA and China. Poor yielding, short day genotypes and susceptibility of all available genotypes to major pests and diseases lower down the productivity.
Realizing the importance of onion and garlic in the country, ICAR established National Research Centre for Onion and Garlic in VIII Plan with its headquarters at Nasik. The Centre has been shifted to Rajgurunagar, Pune in June, 1998.
Over nine years now the center has created facilities for field and laboratories of top range. The center is now upgraded as Project Directorate on Onion and Garlic Research along with All India Network Project spread over 13 centers all over the country.
The center is located at 18.32° N (latitude) and 73.51° E (longitude) at 553.8 m above m.s.l with a mean temperature around 29° C and annual mean rainfall of 669 mm.
The XI-5 year plan (2007-2012) of DOGR has been as follows:
Plan: Rs. 26 Crore
Non-Plan: Rs. 13 Crore
Total: Rs. 39 Crore
Mandate of DOGR:
a. To collect, maintain and act as national repository for onion and garlic germplasm.
b. To develop hybrids/varieties suitable for domestic as well as export market coupled with resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses.
c. To enhance and sustain productivity and quantity of seed as well as bulb crop through agronomic manipulations.
d. To develop packages for post-harvest handling and value addition.
e. To act as clearing house of research and general information relating to onion and garlic.
f. To study seed technology of onion.
g. To act as national trainers training center for onion and garlic.
Breeding Projects on DOGR:
The research areas where DOGR is focusing can be visualized by going through the following list of major breeding projects under progress at DOGR:
a. Development of red and light red onion varieties/hybrids suitable for different seasons having resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses.
b. Collection, evaluation and maintenance of red onion germplasm.
c. Development of onion varieties suitable for different seasons for year round availability.
d. Heterosis breeding in red onion.
e. Breeding red onion varieties resistant to biotic and abiotic stresses.
f. Development of white and yellow onion varieties/hybrids for processing and export having resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses.
g. Collection, evaluation and maintenance of white onion germplasm.
h. Development of high TSS white onion varieties suitable for different seasons and processing.
i. Collection, evaluation and maintenance of yellow onion germplasm.
j. Development of yellow onion varieties suitable for export.
k. Heterosis breeding in white and yellow onion.
l. Breeding white and yellow onion varieties resistant to biotic and abiotic stresses.
m. Improvement of garlic through conventional and biotechnological approaches.
n. Collection, evaluation and maintenance of garlic germplasm.
o. Development of high yielding garlic varieties suitable for different production areas.
p. Studies on somaclonal variations in garlic.
q. Production of virus free garlic through in vitro meristem tip culture.
r. Somatic hybridization in garlic to generate novel cybrids.
s. Molecular analysis of genetic diversity in garlic.
t. Onion improvement through biotechnological approaches.
u. Induction of haploids in onion.
v. Micro-propagation studies in onion.
w. DNA profiling of onion lines using molecular markers.
x. Collection, characterization and screening of wild species for Allium improvement.
y. Screening of wild species for biotic and abiotic stresses and introgression of desirable genes in Allium cepa.
Germplasm Strength of DOGR:
Dark red onion = 125
Light red onion =353
White onion = 350
Yellow onion = 50
NBPGR collections = 640
DOGR has been recognized as National Active Germplasm Site (NAGS) for onion and garlic germplasm conservation in the country by NBPGR, New Delhi.
Important Varieties of Onion Developed by DOGR:
Kharif Season Cultivars:
Bhima Super, Bhima Raj, Bhima Red, B780-5-3-1, B780-5-2-2,
Rabi Season Cultivars:
NRCOG 597, NRCOG 592