The below mentioned article provides notes on malaria relapses.
Malaria as a chill and fever disease is known to mankind for a long time. Except the ‘ovale malaria’ the malarial relapses are very well known in the human malarias. In tertian malaria relapses have been found to take place after 6-12 months of primary infection. The short term malaria have been found in malignant malaria. In quartan malaria relapses take place after long periods of latency.
(a) The term ‘Pernicious Malaria’ is commonly referred to a series of phenomena occurring during the coarse of infection of P. falciparum which, if not effectively treated, threatens the life of the patient within 1 to 3 days.
The serious complications that may develop in Pernicious Malaria are:
capillary blockage that results in:
(i) Cerebral malaria—manifested by hyperpyrexia, coma and paralysis,
(ii) Algid malaria—manifested by cold and clammy skin with peripheral circulatory failure.
(iii) Septicemic malaria—manifested by high continued temperature pneumonia, bilious remittent fever, cardiac failure etc.
All these factors collectively are responsible for the accumulation of erythrocytes in the lumen of the capillary vessels causing obstruction.
(b) In malaria, fever is owing to release of cytokines from macrophages and toxic substances into the blood at the time of rupturing schizont. Chill is due to loss of heat controlling activity of hypothalamus.
(c) Micro- and macro-gametocytes and or any stage (merozoites) of the erythrocytic cycle may enter into female Anopheles mosquito.
(d) Cryptomerozoites or merozoites enter into the R.B.C., reproduce there and the daughter cells come out by rupturing the erythrocytes. This process is repeated causing death of RBC. As a result, anaemia of the host is noticed.
(e) The male Anopheles mosquito cannot suck human blood, because the proboscis of male mosquito is blunt and feathery.