The below mentioned article provides notes on tsetse flies as vectors.
Tsetse flies are of paramount importance in Africa because of their role as vectors of trypano some infections of man and domestic animals, which have had a profound effect on the economy and development of that continent (Fig. 15.17).
The tsetse flies are elongated dark brown or yellowish-brown flies. Some species are no larger than ordinary house flies, while others are larger than Sandflies, measuring about 6-13 mm in length. There are about 20 species of tsetse flies, all belonging to the genus, Glossiana.
Among many species of this genus, G. palpalis causes a dangerous disease known as African Sleeping Sickness. G. palpalis is a blood sucking fly which is the vector of this disease. The Sleeping Sickness infection is transmitted to man by a pathogen. Trypanosoma gambiense is always initiated by the bite of the tsetse fly which harbours the infective metacyclic forms in the lumen of its salivary glands.
When the fly feeds upon man’s blood, it releases the contaminated trypanosomes into his blood stream. The disease Sleeping Sickness, is occurred when the trypanosome (pathogen) invade C.S.F of Central Nervous System. An irregular recurrent is the first symptom. Other symptoms are weakness, anaemia, loss of body weight, severe headache and increase in pulse rate (15.18).
1. The breeding places as well as habitats must be eliminated for controlling Tsetse flies.
2. The reservoir animals should be destroyed.
3. The adult flies can be destroyed by fumigation and spraying of insecticides such as pyrethrum like substances, DDT and BHC.