The following points highlight the four main types of non-wood products and their utilization. The types are: 1. Dyes 2. Rubber 3. Gums 4. Resins.
Type # 1. Dyes:
Botanical name: Emblica officinalis Gaertn.
Plant part used: Fruit
Dried fruit is used as dye after boiling is water and yields bluish black colour called abnusi and is used to dye hair.
Botanical name: Justicia adhatoda L.
Plant part used: Leaves
Yellow dye is obtained from leaves by boiling in water. Where combined with indigo the dye becomes dark-blue green.
Botanical name: Curcuma longa L.
Plant part used: Rhizome
1. Yields yellow dye
2. When added to Alkali turns red and is known as Kumkum.
Botanical name: Butea monosperma (Lam.) Kuntze.
Plant part used: Flower
Flowers yield a yellow dye called tesu.
Botanical name: Woodfordia floribunda Salisb.
Plant Part used: Flower
Red flowers and leaves yield yellow dye used is dyeing silk.
Botanical name: Tagetes erecta Linn.
Plant part used: Flower
Uses: Flower yields yellow dye.
Botanical name: Terminalia chebula Retz.
Plant part used: Rind of dried fruit.
1. Fruit of chebulic myrobalans is black and used to dye and tan.
2. Galls of leaves with alum yield permanent yellow dye.
Botanical name: Mallotus phillipinensis Muell.
Plant part used: Ripe fruit
Ripe fruit covered with a powder yielding yellow dye or orange dye used in dyeing silk and wool.
Botanical name: Acacia catechu wild
Plant part used: Red heart wood.
Uses: Kattha is obtained (Red or Brown colour) used in paan and medicine.
Botanical name: Mariscus cyperinus
Plant part used: Root.
Uses: Roots yield dye used to dye cloths.
xi. Rose Lichen:
Botanical name: Parmelia kamschadalis Ach.
Plant part used: Thallus.
Uses: Lichen is used in dyes and calico printing of cloth in rose colour.
Type # 2. Rubber:
i. Para Rubber:
Botanical Name: Hevea brasiliensis (H Bqk) Muell-Arg.
Plant part used: Latex
1. Rubber is used to make structural materials, soft comfortable. Materials, elastic, conductors, shock absorbers etc.
2. It is used in making mountings for motors and other machinery, gasket, transport materials, translucent materials, sports goods, paints, tyres etc.
3. It is also used in pharmaceutical industries.
Botanical name: Parthenium argentatum Gray
Plant part used: Rubber is accumulated in both tops and roots of the plant. Plants are harvested to get it.
1. It is low quality rubber in comparison to Para rubber.
2. It is used for making floor covering, rugs, rubber backs, gloves, hot water bottles, ice caps etc.
Characteristics of Rubber:
1. It is tough despite of its softness.
2. It is non-conductor of electricity.
3. It is versatile material.
4. Natural rubber is polymer of Isoprene.
5. It is shock absorbent and moisture proof or water proof.
Uses of Rubber:
1. It is used to make many products like washers, gaskets, eraser, sole, heel, balls, bands, roller, elastic, stopper, gloves etc.
2. It is used to make tyres, tubes of cycle, car two wheelers, jeep, truck, three wheelers etc.
3. It is used in making surgical instruments.
4. It is used to make water proof substances, wire insulation and in cushioning.
5. Neoprene is a synthetic product resembling natural rubber in its tensile strength and widely used in electric industry in making sheathing jackets of wires, cables etc.
6. It is used in making conveyor belts, hosepipes, fabrics, coats etc.
7. Silicone rubber is used in stationary seals for high temperature oil lines, gaskets, cable insulation etc.
Type # 3. Gum:
Gums are found naturally as cementing substances between cells i.e., middle lamella or decomposition products of cellulose. The process of disintegrating internal tissue is called gummosis. Gums are colloidal in nature.
They are water soluble but insoluble in alcohol or oils. Gums exude naturally from stem, root or leaves due to wounds or burns. Commercial gums are in the form of dried exudation.
Gums are used as adhesives in printing and finishing textiles, candy industry, in medicine, as sizing agent for paper and in food industry. Most common and useful gums are Gum arabic, gum tragacanth and Karayan gum.
i. Gum Arabic:
Botanical name: Acacia Senegal (L.) Willd.
Plant part used: Gum from bark of trees.
1. Used as office glue.
2. In food industry.
3. As thickener of sweets, jellies and chewing gum.
ii. Guar Gum:
Botanical name: Cyamopsis tetragonolobus Taub.
Plant part used: Gum from seeds of cluster bean.
1. Emulsifier in salad.
2. As stabilizer in ice cream.
Type # 4. Resin:
These are oxidative products of essential oils, secreted in definite cavities or passages, typically derived from stems or roots as exudates due to incision, bruising, chipping etc.
1. Resins are brittle, amorphous and transparent substances.
2. Insoluble in water but soluble in alcohol, either and turpentine.
3. They are made up of resin, acid, anhydride and ester mixtures.
4. They are antiseptic so can prevent decaying.
5. They can lessen the amount of water loss.
1. Useful in making soaps, oil cloth, linoleum, medicine, plastic, varnish, firework, floor coating etc.
Resins may be of three types:
a. Hard resin,
b. Oleoresins, and
c. Gum resins.
A. Hard resin:
Little amount of essential oil, solid, transparent brittle no odour or taste, non-volatile, poor conductor of electricity, burn in air with smoky flame.
Hard resins are of following type:
No oil, yield hard elastic varnish used in out door works.
a. East African Copal:
Zangibar copal is obtained from Trachylobium verrucosum and Inharubane copal is obtained from Capaifera conjugata tree found in south east African coast. The resin is natural exudates from tree trunk.
b. West African Copal:
Congo copal is obtained from Copaifera demeusii and Copaifera mopane. The trees are common in Congo basin. Accra and Benin Copals are obtained from Daniella ogea.
c. Kauri Copal:
It is obtained from the kauri bine i.e., Agathis australis. The plant is found in New Zealand. It is yellow, transparent and very hard, used in varnish and in making linoleum.
d. South American Copal:
It is obtained from South American locust (Hymenaea courbaril) which is a tall tree of Brazil. It is obtained from the stem twings and fruits exudes which drop on the ground.
e. Manila Copal:
It is obtained from Agathis alba which is a tall conifer. Resin is used in enamels and interior work.
It is fossil resin found along the shores of Baltic Sea. It was obtained from Pinus succinifera (extinct sp.) It is used to make mouth piece of pipes, Holder of cigar and to increase elasticity of rayon fibres.
Damar is obtained from the members of Dipterocarpaceae. It is abundantly found in Malaya in Sumatra. The chief Genera producing damar are Shorea robusta (Saal damar), Vateria indica (white damar), Canaricum strictum (black damar) and Balanocarpus etc. Damar is used in spirit, varnishes because of their lustere and light colour.
It is the natural varnish obtained from Rhus vemiciflua (Lacquer tree). The tree is native of China. It is cultivated in Japan.
The oil content is more in addition to resin.
More or less liquid in nature with distinct aroma and flavour such as:
1. Canada Balsam:
It is obtained from Abies balsamea (Balsam fir) of Canada and North United states. The resin is collected on elongated blisters on the bark and only small amounts are obtained. It is yellowish or greenish substances usually used as a mounting medium while making permanent slides. It acts as a cement for optical lenses. It is stimulant, antiseptic, irritant and component of collodion. It is fixative of soaps and perfumes.
It is obtained from coniferous trees. It is viscous honey like soft and brittle solid. It is secreted and accumulated in ducts near cambium and exudes naturally as soft, sticky substance. It is used in manufacture of linoleum, oilcloth, printers ink, floor covering, sealing wax, paints, varnishes, solvent of rubber and printing of cloth.
C. Gum Resin:
It is a mixture of true gum and resin combining the characters of both. They contain small quantity of essential oil and large of colouring substance.
Generally obtained from members of Apiaceae and Burseraceae e.g.:
1. Asafoetide (Ferula asafoetidia):
The cortex of thick fleshy roots exudes milky juice during rainy season. The root is cut and dried in the shade. The gum resin is collected on the surface in the form of tears. It has powerful odour and bitter arid taste due to sulphur compounds of essential oil. Asafoetida is a flavourant of curries and other food products and a medicine for cough, asthama, digestion etc.
2. Galbanum (Ferula galbuniflua):
The gumresin is extracted from lower part of stem. It is used as medicine. It has tenacious aromatic odour.
3. Opopanax (Commiphora kataf):
A member of family Burseraceae used in perfumery. It is also used as medicine. Opopanax is also obtained from Opopanax chironium of family Apiaceae.
4. Bdellium (Commiphora mukul):
Also known as guggulu; used in perfumery, Hawan samagri and as medicine also.
5. Bisabal myrrh (Commiphora erythoracea):
Also known as Sweet myrrh. A member of family Burseraceae, this is a myrrh of antiquity and is used in incense, perfumes and embalming. Also used in perfumes and religious ceremonies.
6. Ammaniaceum (Dorema ammoniaceum):
It exudes a milk latex from the stem and flowering branches as tears, which are collected and used as medicine in circulatory stimulant. It is also used in perfume industry.