The upcoming discussion will update you about the difference between differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation in Plants.
Difference # Differentiation:
The cells derived from root apical meristem (RAM) and shoot apical meristem (SAM) and cambium differentiate, mature to perform specific functions. This act leading to maturation is termed differentiation. They, undergo a few or major structural changes both in their cell walls and protoplasm.
For example, to form, a trachery element the cells lose its protoplasm but develops a very strong, elastic, lignocellulosic secondary cell wall is best suited to carry water to long distances even under extreme tension.
Similarly, cells designated to be mesophyll come to possess many chloroplasts so as to, perform photosynthesis. On one hand, a parenchyma in hydrophytes develop large schizogenous interspaces for mechanical support, buoyancy and aeration, but on the other hand, in a potato tuber (or perennating organs) develops more amyloplasts.
Difference # Dedifferentiation:
In plants, the living differentiated cells can regain the capacity to divide mitotically under certain conditions. The sum of events, that bestow this capacity to divide once again, are termed dedifferentiation. A dedifferentiated tissue can act as meristem (e.g., interfascicular vascular cambium, wound meristem, cork cambium).
Difference # Redifferentiation:
The product of dedifferentiated cells/tissue which lose the ability to divide are called redifferentiate cells/tissues and the event, redifferentiation.
However, the growth in plants is open, and even differentiation in plants is open, because, e.g., the same apical meristem cells give rise to xylem phloem, fibres, etc., cells/tissues arising out of same meristem have different structures at maturity. The final structure at maturity of a cell/ tissue arising out of same meristem is determined by the location of the cell within.
For example, cells positioned distal to root apical meristem (RAM) differentiate as root cap cells, while those pushed to periphery mature as epidermis. However we do not know for as well as determined is called commitment. Terms determination and commitment are used as synonyms.