The following twelve points will highlight the twelve major importance of osmosis in the plant life.
Osmosis and its related phenomena play significant role in the water relationship of plants.
Some of the important roles played by osmosis in the life of any plant are summarized as below:
1. It is a mean by which plant cells maintain their water content despite the loss of water to the air that is constantly occurring.
2. It provides turgidity to the softer tissues and is, therefore, essential for their mechanical support.
3. It controls the absorption of water by root hairs from the soil.
4. Diffusion pressure deficit is responsible for the movement of water across the cortical cells of the roots.
5. Cell to cell diffusion of water is also affected by osmosis.
6. Conduction of water from xylem elements to the neighboring cells is controlled by osmosis.
7. Growing tips of roots remain turgid because of osmosis and are, thus, able to penetrate into the soil.
8. Higher osmotic pressure of the cells provides resistance to the plants against drought injury.
9. It controls opening and closing of stomata during transpiration through its regulation of the turgidity of guard cells.
10. Movement of plants and plant parts (e.g., movement of leaflets of the sensitive plant Mimosa pudica) are controlled by cell turgor which is induced by osmosis.
11. It greatly influences the meristematic activity of the cells and hence growth of the plant.
12. Dehiscence of fruits and sporangia are also controlled by osmosis.