This article will update you about the difference between DNA and RNA.
Difference # DNA:
1. DNA is the usual genetic material.
2. DNA is usually double stranded, except certain viruses where DNA is single stranded e.g., φ x 174)
3. The pentose sugar is deoxyribose.
4. The common organic bases are adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine.
5. Regarding base pairing adenine pairs with thymine and guanine with cytosine.
6. Pairing of bases occurs throughout the length of the molecule.
7. There are few uncommon bases.
8. DNA is only of one type.
9. Most of the DNA is found in the chromosomes. Some DNA is also present in the cytoplasm e.g., in mitochondria and chloroplasts.
10. Denaturation is partially reversible only under certain conditions of slow cooling.
11. DNA on replication forms DNA, and on transcription forms RNA.
12. Usually genetic messages are encoded in DNA
13. DNA consists of a large number of nucleotides up to 4.3 million.
Difference # RNA:
1. RNA is the genetic material in some viruses.
2. Most cellular RNA is single stranded (except some viruses e.g., reovirus, have double stranded)
3. The pentose sugar is ribose.
4. The common organic bases are adenine, guanine, cytosine and uracil.
5. Adenine pairs with uracil and guanine with cytosine.
6. Pairing of base is restricted to the helical region only.
7. There are more uncommon bases.
8. There are three types of RNA. (mRNA, rRNA, tRNA)
9. mRNA is formed on the chromosomes, and is found in the nucleolus and cytoplasm. rRNA and tRNA are also formed on the chromosomes, are found in cytoplasm.
10. Complete and practically instantaneous reversibility of the process.
11. Usually RNA does not replicate or transcribe. (However, in certain viruses RNA can synthesize an RNA chain).
12. The usual function of RNA is translating messages encoded in DNA into proteins.
13. RNA consists of lesser nucleotides up to 12,000.