Here is a term paper on ‘Environmental Pollution’. Find paragraphs, long and short term papers on ‘Environmental Pollution’ especially written for school and college students.
Term Paper on Environmental Pollution
Term Paper Contents:
- Term Paper on the Air Pollution
- Term Paper on the Water Pollution
- Term Paper on the Soil Pollution
- Term Paper on the Radioactive Pollution
- Term Paper on the Noise Pollution
Human beings interact with their environment constantly for its resources. As the human population is increasing at a very fast pace so the amount of this interaction is also increasing. Human beings started exploiting the nature for their needs. This damaged and destroyed the nature.
As the human demands increase the Use of natural resources also increases and along with this the addition of undesirable substances in nature also increases. This addition of undesirable substances which alters the composition of environment is called pollution.
Pollution can be defined as any undesirable change in the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of our environment, i.e. air, water and soil caused by excessive accumulation of pollutants that may directly or indirectly affect human beings and other species.
Pollutant is a substance present in the environment in concentrations that are harmful to the environment and to the living beings. This can be understood with the help of an example — Nitrogen and Phosphorus are used as fertilisers by plants, but as they are in excess in lakes they cause death of plants and animals.
Term Paper on Environmental Pollution # 1. Air Pollution:
This is defined as the occurrence of any foreign matter or gas into the atmosphere which may be harmful to living organisms.
Air pollution can result from both human and natural actions. The natural events that pollute the air include forest fires, volcanic eruptions, wind erosion, pollen dispersal, evaporation of organic compounds and natural radioactivity. Pollution from natural occurrences are not very often. The man-made sources are burning fuels, industrial emission, vegetable oils, and pesticide residues in air.
Sources of Air Pollution:
1. Industrial Pollutants:
Pollutants added by industrial smoke in air are CO2, SO2, H2S, CO and hydrocarbons. The metallurgical processes discharge pollutants like lead, nickel, chromium, etc. Chemical industries release zinc, lead, arsenic and HCl.
2. Burning of Fuel:
Burning of fossil fuel increases CO and CO2. It also releases methane, soot, SO2 and ash.
3. Mobile Combustion:
These days this has become the major source of air pollution. This not only includes automobiles but also aircrafts. It is estimated that around 2000 million tons of pollutants are pumped into the atmosphere every day in Delhi. The reason for introducing lead free petrol was the emission of lead in atmosphere by the vehicles. This can lead to lead poisoning.
4. Agricultural Activity:
Burning of biomass produces a large amount of methane. Burning of forests also emits CO2 Spraying of weedicides and pesticides adds pollutants like chlorinated hydrocarbons, arsenic, etc.
Radiations emitted from the radioactive explosion and tests also add the ionised radiation to the atmosphere.
6. Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM):
Dust generated from refineries and power plants, silica and cement generated from stone crushers, addition of dust due to vehicular movement increase the SPM of atmosphere.
Term Paper on Environmental Pollution # 2. Water Pollution:
Water is life for all the living beings and activities such as agriculture, domestic and industrial uses on earth. But still the clean and safe drinking water is a commodity, today. Water is being polluted through many factors.
Water pollution can be defined as:
“Any change in the physical or chemical properties of water, due to presence of any foreign substance is known as water pollution.”
Two-third of the world is water. Pollution of water bodies not only affect terrestrial but also aquatic flora and fauna.
Sources of water pollution can be classified into point and non-point source.
1. Point Source:
In this source of pollution is close to water source. Pollutants are directly discharged into the water body and it is possible to treat the pollutant before it enters the water body. Examples are sewage outlet of municipal area, underground coal mines and oil wells.
2. Non-Point Source:
Pollution source is scattered away from water source; pollutants are discharged at various places and it is difficult to monitor, regulate and treat the pollutants. Examples are water from roads, streets, lawns, gardens, runoff from fields, etc.
Types of Pollutants:
There can be physical, chemical and biological pollutants. Physical pollutants can be oil spills and hot water from thermal and electrical power plants. Chemical pollutants can be pesticides, herbicides, heavy metals and inorganic chemicals. Biological pollutants can be pathogens like bacteria, protozoa, helminthes, algae, etc.
Term Paper on Environmental Pollution # 3. Soil Pollution:
Soil pollution means addition of unwanted substances which reduce the soil fertility.
Types of Soil Pollutants:
a. Throwing of kitchen garbage and domestic waste.
b. Industries involved in the manufacture of chemicals, rubber, paper, textile, etc. discharge their waste like metal scrapes, dyes, plastics, etc.
c. Use of biocides leads to soil pollution.
d. Acid rain changes the soil pH and makes the soil infertile.
e. Discharging human excreta adds pathogens to soil.
Prevention of Soil Pollution:
Following are the methods that can be adapted to avoid or reduce soil pollution:
a. Afforestation and plantation of grasses.
b. Improving agricultural practices.
c. Disposal of domestic waste should be done in proper manner.
d. Whatever possible should be recycled like glass, plastic, metals, etc.
e. Reuse of material and items should be encouraged.
f. Proper laws should be made and enforced and stringent action should be taken against defaulters.
g. Public awareness should be generated.
h. Work on fully biodegradable plastic is being carried on in the National Research Development Corporation (NRDC).
i. It may be possible to prevent soil erosion of Jaisalmir desert by proper irrigation through Indira Gandhi Canal.
Term Paper on Environmental Pollution # 4. Radioactive Pollution:
Property of certain elements to emit particles and rays like proton, electron and gamma rays by disintegration is called as radioactivity and elements are known as radioactive elements. These radiations cause pollution in air, water and soil.
Kinds of Radioactive Pollution:
a. Natural Source:
These include cosmic rays coming from space and terrestrial radiation from radioactive disintegration (photons, electrons).
b. Anthropogenic Source:
Mining and refining of plutonium and thorium, explosion of nuclear weapons, nuclear power plants and making of radioactive isotopes are also the sources of radiations.
Effects of Radioactive Pollution:
Higher doses of radiation cause death. In lower doses it affects all organs seriously.
In the treatment of cancer long exposure to radiation is used that leads to mutation. These mutated genes persist in the organisms and may be transmitted to future generation.
Control of Radioactive Pollution:
It is necessary to take safety measures while handling radioactive substances. It is also necessary that radioactive waste should be disposed very carefully. Frequent sampling and quantitative analysis in the risk area should be done regularly. Safety measures are to be taken against occupational exposure.
Term Paper on Environmental Pollution # 5. Noise Pollution:
Noise pollution is defined as the production of unwanted ‘high pitch sound. Sound is an inseparable part of human life, but higher pitch can do more harm than good. It not only causes physiological damage but also psychological damage. Unit in which sound is measured is called decibel (dB).
Silence is when sound is at 25 dB, during ordinary conversation it is between 30 and 60 dB. Threshold of hearing is the quietest sound which human ear can perceive. Critical level for ear damage is 85 dB. Jet airplane creates a sound of more than 120 dB at take-off and this is the threshold of pain. This sound can damage the ear and give physical discomfort and headache.
Sources of Noise Pollution:
a. Transport vehicles create noise beyond critical level for ear damage.
b. Industrial machines like engineering establishments, defense equipment, etc.
c. Modern domestic gadgets.
e. Loud speakers.
Effects of Noise Pollution:
a. Impairment of hearing.
b. Headache and hypertension.
c. Unwanted noise increases heartbeat, dilation of pupil, constriction of blood vessels.
d. Too much of noise affects the nervous system.
e. Physiological as well as psychological disorders.
Control of Noise Pollution:
It can be controlled by using proper lubricants so that the noise of machines can be reduced. People working in industries should use ear covers. Airports and industries should be away from residential areas. Laws should be made and strictly enforced.