In this article we will discuss about Mumps Virus:- 1. Meaning of Mumps Virus 2. Pathogenesis and Clinical Features of Mumps Viruses 3. Complications 4. Laboratory Diagnosis 5. Epidemiology 6. Control.
- Meaning of Mumps Virus
- Pathogenesis and Clinical Features of Mumps Viruses
- Complications of Mumps Viruses
- Laboratory Diagnosis of Mumps Viruses
- Epidemiology of Mumps Viruses
- Control of Mumps Viruses
1. Meaning of Mumps Virus:
The term mumps is derived from the mumbling speech of patients incubalio.
2. Pathogenesis and Clinical Features of Mumps Viruses:
Mumps (epidemic parotitis) of childhood is transmitted from direct contact with infected saliva or aerosols from infected patients. The incubation period is 16-18 days. First the virus multiplies in epithelial cells of nasal or upper respiratory tract and spreads by viraemia to the salivary glands, testes, ovaries, pancreas, kidney and brain.
In about 95% cases, non-suppurative inflammation of the parotid glands (salivary adenitis) is a characteristic feature.
Six days before the onset of clinical parotitis, the virus is shed in saliva. Children of 5-10 years of age are commonly affected. The infection is more severe in adults. Salivary-adenitis is often associated with low grade fever and subsides in one week with complete recovery.
3. Complications of Mumps Viruses:
1. Meningitis and meningoencephalitis occur in mumps which resolve without sequelae.
2. Orchitis in males and oophoritis in females, polyarthritis, pancreatitis, nephritis are other complications. Orchitis and oophoritis usually develop with the resolution of parotitis.
4. Laboratory Diagnosis of Mumps Viruses:
1. Direct demonstration of virus by immuno-fluorescence in throat secretion and saliva.
2. Isolation of virus can be done by inoculating secretion in monkey kidney or HEp-2 cell cultures. Growth of virus is identified by haemadsorption.
3. Serological tests indicate rise in antibody titre by CFT using soluble (S) and viral (V) antigens.
Immunity is permanent after a single infection.
5. Epidemiology of Mumps Viruses:
It is a contagious disease but less than measles and chicken pox. Mumps is an endemic disease with worldwide distribution affecting only man.
6. Control of Mumps Viruses:
An attenuated mumps virus vaccine prepared after growing in chick embryo cell culture is available and gives protection. This vaccine contains Jeryl Lynn or Urabe strains and is available in monovalent form (mumps only) or in combination with measles and rubella (MMR) live virus vaccine.