In this article we will discuss about zoological nomenclature and zoological classification of animals.
Names are given to all animals. The name of a particular animal differs in different languages. Even within the same country one animal is known in different names in different regions. To avoid this intricacy of names, it was proposed to give them a scientific name.
The term nomenclature comes from the two Latin words [L. nomen = name and clatura = calling (from ‘calare’ = to call)] and means literally to call by name. Animals are identified by names, and scientific names for the animals are necessary for the immediate access of a particular taxon.
The application of suitable designations to the units and to different groups are called naming or nomenclature. So the definition for nomenclature given by Simpson (1961) is the application of distinctive names to each of the groups recognised in any given zoological classification.
Classification is necessary to avoid confusion in the animal kingdom. It is a part of taxonomy by which we can make an orderly arrangement on the basis of the relationships. So Zoological classification can be defined as the ordering of animals into groups or sets on the basis of their relationships (Simpson, 1961). Mayr (1957, 1969) has also given a similar type of definition.
According to Mayr and Ashlock (1991), a biological classification is the “ordered grouping of organisms according to their similarities and consistencies with their inferred descent”. This definition makes classification natural because it reflects the evolutionary pathway of the organisms.
Purpose of Classification:
The purpose of classification:
(i) Identification of the animals and to arrange the different types of animals into groups on the basis of relationships;
(ii) To express the degree of genetic relationships or affinity between the different types of animals.