In this article we will discuss about the Air Pollution:- 1. Meaning of Air Pollution 2. Sources of Air Pollution 3. Air Pollutants 4. Indoor Air Pollution 5. Effects of Air Pollution 6. Prevention and Control of Air Pollution 7. Disinfection of Air.
- Essay on the Meaning of Air Pollution
- Essay on the Sources of Air Pollution
- Essay on the Air Pollutants
- Essay on the Indoor Air Pollution
- Essay on the Effects of Air Pollution
- Essay on the Prevention and Control of Air Pollution
- Essay on the Disinfection of Air
Essay # 1. Meaning of Air Pollution:
“Air pollution” signifies the presence of gases, mixtures of gases and particulated matter in the surrounding atmosphere. Air pollution is one of the present-day health problems throughout the world.
Essay # 2. Sources of Air Pollution:
Motor vehicles emit hydrocarbons, Carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter. Certain of these hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen are converted into “photochemical” pollutants of oxidizing nature by the strong sunlight.
Combustion of fuel to generate heat and power produces smoke, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and fly ash. Petrochemical industries generate hydrogen fluoride, hydrochloric acid and organic halides. Many industries discharge carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, ozone, hydrogen sulphide and sulphur dioxide.
c. Domestic Sources:
Domestic combustion of coal, wood or oil produces smoke dust, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.
d. Tobacco Smoke:
It is the most direct source of air pollution affecting the health of many people.
Pesticide spraying, fungi, molds and bacteria contribute to air pollution.
Essay # 3. Air Pollutants:
a. Carbon monoxide:
It is a product of incomplete combustion of carbon containing materials. Concentrations in urban areas depend on weather and traffic density.
b. Sulfur dioxide:
It results from the combustion of sulphur containing fossil fuel, the smelting of sulfur containing ores, and other industrial processes, Domestic fires can also produce it.
The mining and smelting of lead ores create pollution problem. Children up to 6 years of age are a population at increased risk for lead exposures. The neurological effects of lead occur at lower threshold in children than in adults.
d. Carbon dioxide:
This is not commonly regarded as air pollutant. It is a natural constituent of air. It does not take part in any significant chemical reactions with other substances in the air. However, its global concentration is rising above the natural level by an amount that can increase global temperature enough to affect climate markedly.
Hydrocarbons formed by combustion of coal, wood, processing and use of petroleum take part in the chemical reactions to exert their pollutant action.
It is the strongest oxidizing agent. It is formed by chemical reactions that occur in the air. It acts as the pollutant in the air.
Tobacco contains cadmium, and smoking may contribute significantly to the uptake of cadmium.
h. Poly-nuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH):
These are formed by the incomplete combustion of organic materials. Its role is to induce lung cancer.
Essay # 4. Indoor Air Pollution:
It is the most environmental problem. It contributes to acute respiratory infections in young children, chronic lung disease and cancer in adults, and adverse pregnancy outcome. Pneumonia is the chief killer of young children.
Essay # 5. Effects of Air Pollution:
a. Health aspects:
(i) The immediate effects of air pollution are on the respiratory systems and the resulting state of it is acute bronchitis. If the air pollution is intense, it may result in immediate death.
(ii) Air pollution damages the cardiorespiratory system in various ways.
(iii) Lead poisoning is dangerous to children developing brain and nervous system.
(iv) Elevated lead levels in children are associated with neuro-psychologic development as measured by loss of IQ, poor school performances and behavioural difficulties.
b. Social and economic aspects:
(i) Air pollution causes destruction of plant and animal life, corrosion of metals, damage of buildings, cost of cleaning and maintenance and repairs.
(ii) It also reduces visibility in towns and it can soil and damage clothing’s.
Essay # 6. Prevention and Control of Air Pollution:
(a) Containment is the prevention of escape of toxic substances into the ambient air. It is done by the engineering methods such as enclosure, ventilation and air cleaning. “Arrestors” are the development for the removal of contaminants.
(b) Smoke reduction is done by the increased use of electricity, natural gas and central heating in place of coal. In Delhi and Bombay de-leaded petrol is being used.
(c) Some air pollutants are readily removed by vegetation. The establishment of “Green belts” between industrial and residential areas is an attempt at dilution. The capacity for dilution is limited and trouble occurs when the atmosphere is overburdened with pollutants.
(d) Air pollution is controlled in many countries by suitable legislation, e.g., clean Air Acts. The Govt., of India have enacted “The Air Act” in 1981 to decrease the nuisance of air pollution.
(e) The WHO has established an international network of laboratories for the monitoring and study of air pollution. The international centres for this network issue warnings of air pollution where and when necessary.
Essay # 7. Disinfection of Air:
a. Mechanical ventilation reduces vitiated air and bacterial density.
b. Ultraviolet radiation is effective in operation theatres and infectious disease wards. Ultraviolet rays are also effective for general use in public assembly and school rooms.
c. Dust control is made by the application of oil to floors of hospital wards. This oil reduces the bacterial content of the air.