The below mentioned article provides a short note on Monsoon Diseases in India.
The monsoon-diseases in India are:
1.Enteric fever (Typhoid)
2. Malaria (common)
3. Dengue fever (less common)
4. Gastrointestinal diseases
5. Hepatitis A virus infection (Jaundice)
6. Hepatitis E virus infection
During the rainy season, rain water contaminated with micro-organism (bacteria, virus, fungus) may gain entrance into city drinking water supply system through leaking water pipe, causing gastroenteritis, viral hepatitis (Jaundice), and enteric fever.
1. Enteric Fever:
Enteric Fever (Typhoid) will show an alarming rise during monsoon. It is contracted by consuming contaminated food or drinking water. Hepatitis A virus and Hepatitis E virus can enter the alimentary canal after drinking water contaminated via leaking city water pipe line, or consuming contaminated food.
In rainy season, there is water logging which may be a congenial habitat for breeding of mosquito which transmits malaria which may become rampant. Only night-time biting female Anopheles mosquito can transmit malaria.
3. Dengue Fever:
Dngue Fever, less common viral infection in India, is transmitted by day-time biting Aedes mosquito which breeds in clean water.
The human body is adjusted to certain level of temperature (37°C) and climate. If there is sudden change in temperature and in the level of humidity, there is disturbance in the body’s defence mechanism with the rise in humidity, the replication of virus is highest.
This may lower the body’s resistance. Thus the susceptibility to viral infection will become quite imminent. Cold, cough, runny nose and body ache are some common symptoms of viral fever.
Prevention and Control:
The viral infection can be prevented by avoiding pollution congested atmosphere and contact with person suffering from a viral infection. Hygiene should be maintained by drinking boiled water and keeping away from roadside food as adopted in gastroenteritis and enteric fever.
In Dengue fever, the water tank used to store clean water should be covered with a tight lid so that the mosquito cannot enter; if they enter they may die of suffocation. Spray of insecticides with kerosene may kill mosquitoes which have not developed resistance to insecticide.
Life cycle of mosquito from egg to adult is completed in twelve days. Therefore, weekly once (particularly during holidays-Sunday), water in the container should be replaced. In this way, the life cycle is intercepted and there will be no mosquito to transmit Dengue fever. Malaria can be treated by anti-malarial drugs.
Leptospirosis in India (Gujarat):
Leptospirosis mainly affects farmers working in fields with stagnated rain water contaminated with Leptospira infected rat urine.
Leptospirosis—which strike South Gujarat following fresh floods in 2004—among 540 suspected cases, 71 persons reportedly died in 4 districts namely, Surat, Valsad, Navsari and Bharuch.