This article throws light upon the top seven guidelines for designing of appropriate waste management system. The guidelines are: 1. Quantity and Characteristics 2. Collection of Waste 3. Transportation of Waste 4. Disposal of Waste 5. Treatment/Recycling of Waste 6. Financial Structure 7. Community Participation.
Guideline # 1. Quantity and Characteristics of Waste Water Management:
Quantity and characteristics of the waste are the major factors, which decide magnitude of waste management problem. It is necessary to carry out weighment exercise regularly to assess the quantity of waste. Future per capita quantity can be estimated with the help of projected population and annual increase of per capita quantity.
On the basis of the waste quantity, infrastructure requirement can be estimated. It is also necessary to carry out characterisation studies frequently in order to assess the changes in waste characteristics due to ever-changing scenario. This data will also serve as a basis for selection of disposal/treatment option.
Guideline # 2. Collection of Waste for Its Management:
Properly designed collection bins and implements should be used for collection and storage of waste. Wastes should be collected frequently in order to avoid accumulation, which leads to degradation of environmental and aesthetic quality.
Suggested collection frequencies for cities with different population ranges have been presented in Table 20.3. Suggestion from the citizen as well as workers for improvement in the design of bins and implements will be useful.
Spacing and location of the bins 6 should be fixed on the basis of the waste load and public opinion. House to house collection system can be introduced gradually to ensure environment friendly collection practices.
Guideline # 3. Transportation of Waste for Its Management:
Selection of properly designed vehicles is important. Various factors like width of the road, transport volume, road conditions, etc. play important role in selection of vehicles. Proper garage should be provided to save the vehicles from wear and tear due to heat and rain.
Preventing maintenance system should be introduced which is useful for longer life of the vehicles. Vehicle route should be properly planned for proper utilisation of manpower, saving of fuel and reduction of time. Time and motion study should be conducted to reduce the non-productive idle time of the vehicles and increase productivity.
Guideline # 4. Disposal of Waste for Its Management:
Sanitary landfill technique should be adopted for disposal of waste. Compaction of waste should be carried out regularly preferably with bulldozer. A daily earth cover of 15 cm thickness and final cover of 60 cm thickness should be applied over the compacted waste.
These practices will minimise migration of leachate through soil strata, suppress the foul odor and improve the aesthetic quality. Impervious clay liner/synthetic liner should be provided at the bottom of the landfill for protection of groundwater from environmental pollution.
Perforate polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe can be provided for leachate collection. It is also desirable to install gas collection and flaring system to prevent continuous escape of methane in the surrounding atmosphere.
Guideline # 5. Treatment/Recycling of Waste:
Composting is the process of decomposition and stabilisation of organic matter under controlled condition. Since India is an agriculture-based country, there is a need for popularization of the product among the farmers and to exploit the manure value of the product.
Waste minimisation, through segregation of recyclable materials like plastics, glass, metals, etc. is another aspect, which needs special attention. NGOs may come forward to promote the activity. Waste pickers may be trained so that the segregation of recyclable items can be done in a more systematic and organised way.
Guideline # 6. Financial Structure of Waste Water Management:
A new tax scheme can be introduced to meet the expenditure for modernisation of SWM system and to improve the financial status of Municipal Corporation. Additional charges can be collected from the individuals availing house-to-house collection facility.
Guideline # 7. Community Participation for Waste Water Management:
Community participation is essential for smooth and efficient operation of SWM system. In every area, citizen forums should be formed. These forums should comprise citizen’s representatives, social workers and municipal officers. Immediate action based on feedback from such forum will go a long way in improving the situation. Various programmes should be conducted for increasing public awareness.