Read this article to learn about the production and uses of monoclonal antibodies!
1. A mouse is injected with a specific antigen that will induce antibodies against that antigen.
2. The spleen of the mouse is removed and a suspension is made. The suspension includes В cells that produce antibodies against the injected antigen.
3. The spleen cells are then mixed with myeloma cells (cancer cells) that are capable of continuous growth in culture but have lost the ability to produce antibodies. Some of the antibody-producing spleen cells and myeloma cells fuse to form hybrid cells. These hybrid cells are now capable of growing continuously in culture while producing antibodies.
4. The mixture of cells is placed in a selective medium that allows only hybrid cells to grow.
5. Hybrid cells proliferate into clones called hybridomas. The hybridomas are screened for production of the desired antibody.
6. The selected hybridomas are then cultured to produce large quantities of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) because they come from a single clone of identical cells.
Who described Method of Production?
The method of production of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was described by Jeme, Kohler and Milstein in 1975 for which they were awarded Nobel Prize for medicine in 1984.
Uses of monoclonal antibodies include the following. They recognize several bacterial pathogens, diagnosis of pregnancy, allergies and diseases such as hepatitis, rabies and some sexually transmitted diseases. MAbs have also been used to detect cancer at an early stage and to know the extent of metastasis.
MAbs are also being used since 1986 to minimize rejection of kidney transplants. For these purposes MAbs are prepared that react with the T cells that are responsible for rejection of the transplanted tissue. The MAbs suppress the T cell activity. They may also be used to treat autoimmune diseases.