In this article we will discuss about the application of enzymes, explained with the help of diagrams.
The enzymes possess high catalytic activity and lack undesirable side reactions, therefore, have ‘ been exploited recently on an increasing scale, in food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. According to Nicholas C. Price and Lewis Stevens (1999), because of advancement of genetic engineering a larger number of enzymes are available on large scale which has increased and ushered the scope of enzyme technology.
From 1983 to 1995 the sales of enzymes have doubled and a tremendous rise is expected in enhancement of sales. Although the enzymes present in the bacteria and yeasts have been used by man long back but the use of isolated enzymes in industry reverse to the enzymes found in the cells of organisms, has started in 1970s only. Now over 60 enzymes have found their way in industrial use.
The applications of enzymes include the exploitation of reactions that are catalyzed by the enzymes in intact organism i.e., in complete and undamaged organisms and the isolated enzymes i .e .freed from microorganisms beside immobilized enzymes/e., attaching an enzyme to an insoluble support to permit its reuse and continuous use, and the immolated whole cells. Distribution of sales of different types of enzymes is shown in Fig. 41.1 and Fig. 41.2.