Get the answer of: How to Control Malaria ?
Malaria as a chill and fever disease is known to mankind for a long time and eradication of malaria is still a pioneer problem in public health.
The control measures suggested against the spreading of malaria fall under three categories:
(a) Elimination or destruction of vector;
(b) Prophylaxis, i.e., prevention of infection;
(c) Treatment of the infected patient.
(a) Destruction or Elimination of Vector:
The destruction of mosquito is the most effective measure in controlling malaria.
This can be achieved by using the following steps:
i. The adult Anopheles mosquito can be destroyed by fumigation and spraying of insecticides. Sulphur, pyrethrum like substances are burnt to produce poisonous fumes to control mosquito. DDT and BHC are used for spraying in the dwelling places to kill the adult mosquitoes.
ii. The mosquito breeds by laying eggs in the stagnant water in ditches, pools, small ponds etc. These breeding places must be eliminated.
iii. The surface of water in small pools ditches, drains etc. may be covered by spreading crude oil or kerosene oil. As a result, a thin film of oil is formed on the surface of water that prevents the normal respiration of larvae and pupae and so they will die subsequently.
iv. For an effective control measure of mosquito, fishes like Gambusia, Goldfish etc. may be introduced and cultivated in the ponds, ditches etc. to feed upon the larvae and pupae of Anopheles mosquito.
(b) Prophylaxis (Prevention of Infection):
Protection of healthy persons in malaria against the attack of mosquito can be done through the following measures:
Defence against mosquito bites:
Protection against mosquito bites must be done by adopting various measures, like:
i. Making building houses on high grounds.
ii. Doors, windows and ventilators are to be covered with screen.
iii. Use of mosquito nets at night.
iv. Use of anti-mosquito creams (repellents) on exposed parts of the body.
(c) Treatment of Malaria:
Treatment of Malaria by inoculations or vaccinations is out of question as the malarial parasite does not produce any antibodies or antitoxins in human blood. Treatment is made with various drugs such as Quinine, Chloroquine, Camoquine, Resochin, Atabrin, Primaquine as suppressants of various stages of the parasites.