The below mentioned article provides an overview on Biomolecules of Microorganisms. After reading this article you will learn about: 1. Introduction to Biomolecules of Microorganisms 2. Biosurfactants or Microbial Surfactants.
Introduction to Biomolecules of Microorganisms:
As the micro-organisms dwell in a variety of environments they are often difficult to isolate, screen, and through strain development etc. can be used for a variety of purposes related to industrial microbiology. Various cultures of such microorganisms can be stored on in a refrigerator (at5°C) or at -20°C in a freezer, an at times in liquid nitrogen (at-150°C to -196°C) to reduce their metabolic activities.
It is all done to eliminate genetic changes and retain viability. A variety of fungi, viruses, algae and yeasts have been preservel using liquid nitrogen. Some fungi and actinomycetes have also been preserved using dried cultures (of oil). Another method is lyophilization, or freeze-drying which involves the freezing of a culture after drying under vacuum (that sublimes the cell water).
The biomolecules produced by micro-organisms are covered under bacteriocins.
The biomolecules produced by eukaryotes and studied under eucaryocins. However, a new field of achaeocins is still in infancy, (e.g. Haloarchaea includes archead as well as bacterial organisms).
Currently so many erctemophiles are being screened for biomolecules. The Downs tream processing is a key process in production of biological molecules using microorganisms. One such example came from the hot geyeres of yellow-stone National Park (U.S.A.) where the bacteria Thermus aquaticus growing at temperature between 80-95°C became source of Taq polymerase enzyme (to be used in P C R).
On the contrary certain Psychrophiles have evolved biomolecule that function at cold temperatures.
It can be mentioned that microorganisms have recently been explored for a number of biomolecules and other novel genes producing these specific compounds.
They are not only being explored from a variety of hitherto unknown environments like (marine themal vents, polar environments, deep wells and a variety of soils etc.) they are also becoming ideal organisms for gene-minig with regards to novel-genes to be later used in various technologies to produce useful antitbiotics etc.
And a lot of funding is thus being made in the interaction of mono particle with biomolecules and microorganisms. It is one of the fastly growing field of research in applied microbiology.
All the various biomolecules produced by microorganisms can be broadly categorized under these categories:
(a) Membrane components
(c) Proteins of interest
(d) All others
A variety of biosurfactants and surface-active molecules are produced by mircro-organisms (e.g., as from a strain of bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa). A brief list of microorganisms and some biotics produced by them is given below:
Some Microorganisms and Antibiotics produced by them:
Biosurfactants or Microbial Surfactants:
“Biosurfactants” or microbial surfactants are surface-active biomolecules that are produced by a variety of microorganisms. Biosurfactants have gained importance in fields of enhanced oil recovery, environmental bioremediation. Food processing and pharmaceuticals owing, to their unique properties-higher biodegradability and effectiveness at extremes of temperature, pH and salinity.
However, large scale production of these molecules has not been realized because of low yield in the production processes.
The micro-organisms produce a broad range of bioactive natural products important to human health or are of high value to industries. These products can be derived as by-products of biofuel feed-stocks or developed in specialized or engineered plants or microorganisms. Micro-organisms are the main source of complex biomolecules used as prescription pharmaceuticals.
Due to their low production cost, plant microorganisms are potential platforms for metabolic engineering of high-value, bioactive molecules. As well, micro-organisms can be engineered for production of chemicals via sophisticated biosynthetic pathways in fermentation system.
A comprehensive system biology approach has the potential to reveal the fundamental mechanisms of natural product metabolism in key organisms and, ultimately, facilitate the engineering of bioactive pharmaceuticals and nutriceuticals.
Metagenomic approaches, involving direct analysis of DNA from highly complex microbial communities, have the potential to identify new or improved biosynthetic pathways and processes for production of valuable biomolecules.