In this article we will discuss about:- 1. Introduction to IIVR 2. Mandate of IIVR 3. Vegetable Varieties.
Introduction to IIVR:
Vegetable research in India got boost with the establishment of All India Coordinated Research Project (AICRP) on vegetable crops during 1971 at Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), New Delhi. The status of AICRP on vegetables was elevated to the level of Project Directorate of Vegetable Research (PDVR) during 1986 with headquarters at IARI, New Delhi.
During 1992, the headquarters was shifted from New Delhi to Varanasi and PDVR was up-graded to the level of national institute under ICAR during 1999 and was named as Indian Institute of Vegetable Research (IIVR). The research programmes of IIVR are broadly organized into 3 major divisions, namely, Crop Improvement, Natural Research Management and Crop Protection.
IIVR has well equipped laboratories on PGR Management, Vegetable Breeding, Genetics and Cytogenetics, Molecular Breeding, Transgenics, Tissue culture, Seed Technology, Agronomy, Soil Science, Crop Physiology and Biochemistry, Post-harvest Technology, Statistics, Economics and Extension, Integrated Pest and Disease Management, Residue Analysis and Bio-Control.
Gene-bank is also available for medium term storage of seeds of germplasm. IIVR has a well-developed 150 acre research farm and several glass houses, poly-houses and net-houses. The institute has a strong financial position as evident from the following budget allocation during the X five year plan.
Indian Institute of Vegetable Research is situated under the greater periphery of the Holy city Varanasi at 82.52°E longitude and 25.10°N latitude. It is located approximately 20 km from the heart of the city towards south-west on Varanasi – Adalpura Road.
The area receives an average rainfall of 1000 mm which is distributed over a period of more than 100 days with peak period between July and August. Scattered showers occur during winter months. In general, the temperature ranges from 5°C to 42°C. The coldest month is January while the maximum temperature is observed during May and June.
Mandate of IIVR:
1. To undertake innovative, basic, strategic, anticipatory and applied research for developing technologies to enhance productivity of vegetable crops, their nutrient quality and post- harvest management.
2. To provide scientific leadership in coordinated network research for solving location- specific problems of production and to monitor breeder seed production of released/ notified varieties and parental lines.
3. To act as a national repository of scientific information relevant to vegetable crops and as a center for training for up-gradation of scientific manpower working on vegetable crops.
4. To develop high yielding, good quality, disease and insect pest resistant varieties/hybrids of selected vegetable crops.
5. To develop advanced production and protection technologies for selected vegetable varieties/hybrids.
6. To undertake germplasm collection, maintenance and documentation in vegetable crops.
Vegetable Varieties Developed at IIVR:
Efforts have been made to evolve high yielding varieties/hybrids with better quality fruits, resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. The institute has developed 42 varieties/hybrids, which include 5 of tomato, 4 of brinjal 10 of okra, 6 of pea, 4 of cow pea, 2 each of bottle gourd, chilli, radish and ash gourd, 1 each of cauliflower, muskmelon, pumpkin, bitter gourd and French bean.
The brief description of these products is as follows:
DVRT-l (Kashi Amrit):
A determinate variety derived from inter-specific cross L. esculentum (cv.Sel.7) x L. hirsutum f. glabratum (acc. B6013′) through backcross pedigree method, fruits round, attractive red and fleshy with an average weight of 108 g, suitable for cultivation during ToLCV infested period, average yield 620 q/ha.
H-86 (Kashi Vishesh):
Resistant to ToLCV, developed using L.hirsutum f.glabratum B’6013′ x Sel 7 as donor parent following backcross pedigree selection method, plants determinate, dark green, fruits red, spherical, size medium to large, average fruit weight 80 g, first harvest at 70-75 days after transplanting; yield 400-450 q/ha.
Kashi Hemant (IIVR Sel-1):
Developed through pedigree selection from a cross Sel-18x Flora Dade, plants determinate, fruits attractive red and round, 80 g, yield 400-420 q/ha.
Kashi Sharad (IIVR Sel-2):
Developed through pedigree selection from a cross MTH-6x Kalyani Eunish, plants indeterminate; leaves broad, fruits attractive red, slightly oval, firm, thick pericarp; longer shelf life, fruit weight 90 to 95 g, yield 400-500 q/ha.
Kashi Anupam (DVRT-2):
Developed by hybridization between L. esculentum cv.’Sel-7′ and L.hirsutum f. glabratum ‘B6013’, following backcross-pedigree selection, plants determinate, fruits large, flatfish round, indented at blossom end of fruit, attractive red with 5-6 locules; medium maturity, 75-80 days after transplanting, yield 500-600 q/ha.
Kashi Taru (IVBL-9):
Plants tall and erect, (120-130 cm) with dark green leaves and stem, first flowering 45-50 days after transplanting, fruits long, purple (length 31 cm and diameter 5 cm) picking at 75-80 days after transplanting, average yield 700-750 q/ha.
Kashi Prakash (IVBR-1):
Plants semi-upright, stems and leaves green, fruits attractive with light green spots, calyx spiny, average weight 190 g, picking at 80-82 days after transplanting, average yield 650-700 q/ha. Hybrids
Kashi Sandesh (VRBHR-1):
A hybrid having semi-upright plant habit (height 71.0 cm) with green stem and purplish green leaves, flowers appear at 45 days after transplanting, fruits purple, medium size, round shape, fruit length 12.4 cm, diameter 10.2 cm and weight 225 g, picking at 76 days after transplanting, average yield 780 q/ha.
Kasha Komal (IVBHL-54):
Semi-upright plant growth habit, height 90-100 cm, with light green stem and leaves; first flowering at 35-40 days after transplanting, fruits light purple, long, soft texture, average length 13 cm and diameter 3 cm, first picking at 65-70 days after transplanting, average yield 800 q/ha.
Kashi Anmol (KA-2):
Derived from two cycles of simple recurrent selection from a Sri Lankan introduction, plants determinate, dwarf (60-70 cm) with nodal pigmentation on stem, green attractive pendant fruits, first picking at 55 days after transplanting, average yield 200 q/ha, moderately resistant to anthracnose, die back and Cerscopora leaf spot under field conditions.
Kashi Surkh (CCH-2):
An F1 hybrid of a cross between CMS line (CCA 4261) and Pusa Jwala, plants semi- determinate (1-1.2 m), erect and nodal pigmentation on stem, fruits light green, straight, length 11-12 cm, suitable for green as well as red ripe fruit harvest, first harvest after 55 days of transplanting, green fruit yield 240 q/ha, red fruit yield about 140 q/ha, tolerant to trips, mites and viruses.
Kashi Param (IVFB-1):
Developed through pure line selection, plants determinate (70 cm long) and leaves dark green, pod fleshy, length 14.7 cm, round, dark green, pod yield 120-140 q/ha.
Kashi Shyamal (IVRCP-1):
Plants dwarf and bushy, height 70-75 cm, branches 3-4 per plant, early flowering (40 days after sowing), first harvesting 48 days after sowing, 35-40 pods per plant, pod yield 70-80 q/ha, tolerant to golden mosaic virus.
Kashi Gauri (VRCP-2):
A bush type, dwarf, photo-insensitive and early variety suitable for sowing in spring, summer and rainy seasons, flowering in 35-38 days and pods ready for harvest in 45-48 days after sowing, pods 25-30 cm long, light green, soft, fleshy and free from parchment layer, resistant to golden mosaic virus, Psedocercospora cruenta and average green pod yield 100-120 q/ha
Kashi Unnati (VRCP-3):
A photo-insensitive, dwarf and bushy type (40-45 cm height), early variety suitable for sowing in spring-summer and rainy seasons, flowering in 30-35 days and pods ready for harvest in 40-45 days, 40-45 pods per plant with average pod length of 30-35 cm, the average pod yield about 125-150 q/ha, resistant to golden mosaic virus and Pseudocercospora cruenta diseases.
Kashi Kanchan (VRCP-4):
Bush type and dwarf (50-60 cm height), photo-insensitive and early variety suitable for sowing in spring summer and rainy seasons, flowers in 40-45 days, pods ready for harvest in 50-55 days, 40-45 pods per plant, pods dark green, tender, fleshy with less fibre and free from parchment layer, resistant to golden mosaic virus and Pseudocercospora cruenta, 150-200 q/ha green pods.
Kashi Mohini (VRO-3):
Plants tall, (110-140 cm), flowers at 4th-5th node during summer and 5th-7th node during rainy season after 39-41 days of sowing, fruits with five ridges, 11.3 – 12.6 cm long pods at marketable stage, suitable for summer and rainy season cultivation, yield 130-150 q/ha. resistant to YVMV under field conditions.
Kashi Mangali (VRO-4):
Developed through pure line selection, plants tall, height 120-125 cm, flowers at 4th to 5th node after 40-42 days after sowing, fruits five ridged, light green, yield 130-150 q/ha, resistant to YVMV under field conditions.
Kashi Vibhuti (VRO-5):
A variety with dwarf growth habit, plant height 60-70 cm during rainy and 45-50 cm during summer season, bears 2-3 branches with short-inter-nodal length, flowering starts on 4th to 5th node after 38-40 days after sowing, plant bears 18-22 fruits of 8-10 cm length at marketable stage, yield 170-180 q/ha, resistant to YVMV.
Kashi Pragati (VRO-6):
Plants tall (130-175 cm) with 1-2 effective branches, first flower appears after 36-38 days after sowing on 4th node during rainy season and 3rd node during summer season, fruits 8-10 cm in length at marketable stage, 23-25 pods plant and yield 180-190 q/ha during rainy and 130-140 q/ha during summer season, resistant to YVMV.
Kashi Satdhari (IIVR-10):
Plant height 130-150 cm with 2-3 effective branches, flowering at 42 days after sowing at 3rd to 4th node, 18-25 fruits/plant with seven ridges, fruit length 13-15 cm at marketable stage, yield 110-140 q/ha, resistant to YVMV under field conditions.
Kashi Lila (IIVR-11):
Medium plant height (110-130 cm), flowering at 30-34 days after sowing, suitable for cultivation during rainy and summer seasons as early crop due to low temperature tolerance, fruits have five ridges, green and 13-15 cm long, resistant to YVMV, yield 150-170 q/ha.
Shitla Uphar (DVR-1):
Plants medium tall, (110-130 cm), flowering at 38-40 days after sowing at 4th-5th node, fruits green, 11-13 cm long at marketable stages, yield 150-170 q/ha, resistant to yellow vein mosaic virus.
Shitla Jyoti (DVR-2):
Plants medium tall, (110-150 cm), flowering at 30-40 days after sowing at 4th-5th node, fruit green, 12-14 cm long at marketable stage, yield 180-200 q/ha, resistant to YVMV.
Kashi Bhairav (DVR-3):
Plants medium tall with 2-3 branches, fruits dark green, 10-12 cm long at marketable stage, yield 200-220 q/ha, resistant to YVMV under field conditions.
Kashi Mahima (DVR-4):
Plants tall, height 130-170 cm, flowering at 36-40 days after sowing at 4th-5th node, fruits green, 12-14 cm long at marketable stage, yield 200-220 q/ha, field resistance against YVMV.
Kashi Nandini (VRP-5):
An early maturing variety developed through pedigree selection from the cross P 1542 x VT-2-1, plant height 47-51 cm, flowers appear at 32 days after sowing, 7-8 pods per plant, pods 8-9 cm long, attractive, well filled with 8-9 seeds, shelling 47-48%, yield 110-120 q/ha, tolerant to leaf miner.
Kashi Udai (VRP-6):
An early maturing variety developed through pedigree selection from the cross Arkel x FC-1, plant height 58-62 cm, 50% plants bear flowers at 35-37 days after sowing, plants have dark green foliage and short internodes with 8-10 pods per plant, pods attractive, 9-10 cm long, filled with 8-9 bold seeds, shelling percentage 48, yield 100-110 q/ha.
Kashi Shakti (VRP-7):
A medium maturing variety developed through pedigree selection from the cross Hara Bona x NDVP-8, plant height 90-98 cm, flowers at 54-56 days after sowing, plants have dark green foliage with 11-12 pods per plant, pods 10.0-10.5 cm long, attractive filled with 7-8 bold seeds, shelling percentage 48-49, yield 140-160 q/ha.
Kashi Mukti (VRP-22):
An early maturing powdery mildew resistant variety developed through pedigree selection from the cross No. 7 x PM-5, plant height 50-53 cm, flowers at 35-36 days after sowing, pods 8.5-9 cm long, with 8-9 bold soft textured seeds, shelling percentage 48-49, yield 110-120 q/ha.
Kashi Kanak (VRP-2):
An early maturing variety developed through selection, plant height 50-55 cm, foliage dark green, pod straight, light green, length 7-8 cm filled with bold seeds, first picking at 55-58 days after sowing, green pod yield 60-80 q/ha.
Kashi Arati (VRP-3):
A mid season variety, flowering at 45-50 days after sowing, pods green, bold grain, average yield 80-120 q/ha. Radish
Kashi Sweta (IIVR-1):
Developed through selection from radish cv. Chetki, suitable for early harvesting, edible roots at 30-35 days after sowing, roots 25-30 cm long, 3.3-4.0 cm in diameter, straight, tapering with pointed tip, yield 450-470 q/ha.
Kashi Hans (IIVR-2):
Developed through selection, suitable for September to February planting, harvesting after 40-45 days of sowing, can stand in the field up to 10-15 days after edible maturity, moderately resistant to Alternaria blight, leaves soft and smooth like spinach, roots straight, tapering, length 30-35 cm, diameter 3.5-4.2 cm, yield 430-450 q/ha.
Kashi Dhawal (IVAG 502):
Derived from a local collection, vine length 7.5-8 m, fruits oblong, flesh white, thickness 8.5-8.7 cm, seed arrangement linear, average weight 11-12 kg, crop duration 120 days, yield 550-600 q/ha.
Kashi Ujwal (IVAG 90):
Derived from a local collection, vine length 7.5-8 m, fruits round with average weight of 10-12 kg, fruit flesh white with 7 cm thickness, seed arrangement linear, crop duration 110-120 days, yield 55-60 t/ha.
Kashi Kunwari (IVREC-2):
Early maturing, can tolerate high rainfall during its vegetative growth, curds semi-dome type, white compact, fine texture, weight 300-450 g, yield 300-350 q/ha.
Kashi Harit (IVPK 226):
Derived from the cross between NDPK-24 x PKM through pedigree selection, vines short, leaves dark green with white spots, fruits green, spherical 2.5-3.0 kg at green stage, yield of 300-350 q/ha in 65 days of crop duration.
Kashi Madhu (IVMM-3):
Medium vine, leaves sparsely lobed, colour dark green, fruits round, with open prominent green sutures, weight 650-725 g, half slip in nature, rind thin, smooth, pale yellow at maturity, flesh salmon orange (mango colour), thick, very juicy, T.S.S. 13-14% and seeds loosely packed in the seed cavity, post-harvest life better with good transportability, tolerant to powdery and downy mildew, medium maturity, yield 200-270 q/ha.
Kashi Bahar (VRH-1):
Long fruited hybrid with green vine and vigorous growth, fruit straight, light green, length 30-32 cm, average weight 780-850 g, yield 500-550 q/ha, suitable for rainy and summer season cultivation.
Kashi Ganga (DVBG-1):
An early variety derived from the cross IC-92465 x DVBG-151, fruits light green, length 30 cm, diameter 7 cm, fruit weight 800-900 g and yield 480-550 q/ha, tolerant to anthracnose and suitable for rainy and summer season cultivation.
Kashi Urvasi (DVBTG-1):
This variety has been derived from the cross IC-85650B x IC-44435A, having dark green and long fruits, mild spines, length 16-18 cm, fruit weight 90-110 g and yield 220-220 q/ha.