In this article we will discuss about:- 1. Content-Cum-Methodology- Concept and Nature 2. Need and Importance of Content Cum-Methodology 3. Steps to Content-Cum-Methodology.
Pedagogical shift has become a challenging task for the teachers. The teacher’s pre-teaching processing on subject knowledge for teaching purpose can be called content-cum-methodology.
The concept ‘content-cum-methodology ‘ was first introduced by National Council of Teacher Education, New Delhi in the Teacher Education Curriculum. A frame work (NCTE 1978).
The word cum indicates inseparable. In the term “content-cum- methodology” homogeneity and integration of content knowledge and teaching method is implied. The integration of the two can enhance effectiveness of teaching.
But there are two basic questions:
1. Is teaching possible without subject-knowledge?
2. All experienced teachers consider subject knowledge and teaching methods in an integrated fashion.
Need For Content-Cum-Methodology Concept:
The teacher puts himself/herself into the role of a learner when he studies the subject. When he/she stands in his/her classroom for teaching he assumes the role of a teacher. These two roles are distinct. The thinking processes employed in these two roles are also distinct.
The teacher in his role of a teacher always considers subject knowledge in the context of teaching. Since an isolated thinking about teaching without content is worthless, the concept is termed content-cum-methodology. The coining of the term is intentional and deliberate. Content-cum-methodology attaches greater significance to teacher’s teaching-related thinking processes about subject knowledge. The NCTE has clarified the same when it had put forward this concept.
The concept has been classified as follows:
The term “content-cum-methodology” clearly implies that there will be meaningful integrations of content and teaching developed in student teacher. It is not any additional content or enriched content separately provided to the trainee in his discipline. It is a rather the deeper understanding of the concept he is required to teach in the school.
This definition brings out four essential characteristics of content-cum-methodology:
1. Content-cum-methodology implies meaningful integration of content knowledge and teaching.
2. This integration is in observable terms and in terms of overt behaviour.
3. Content-cum-methodology does not mean additional and enriched knowledge independently provided to teachers.
4. Content-cum-methodology implies a deeper understanding of the concept taught at the school level.
In other words, content-cum-methodology includes two main features:
1. Deeper understanding of subject knowledge selected for teaching.
2. Meaningful integration of the subject knowledge with teaching.
Lec-shulman 1986 American scholar worked on it and called Pedagogical-content-knowledge. According to Shulman (1987) “Pedagogical content knowledge” is the amalgamation of “content knowledge and teaching method”. When the teacher teaches certain points to pupils he performs various activities he help them to understand it. While performing those activities, he considers the nature of subject knowledge, pupils thinking process, their previous knowledge and way of learning.
In other words, teacher transforms the subject knowledge into relevant teaching activities so that the pupil understands it. Such transformation is called “knowledge representation”. E.g- illustrations, examples, picture explanations, demonstration for clarity specific ideas or concepts.
Shulman insists in that it is the teacher himself who has to understand the teaching content. He should know and predetermined why he is going to teach the units. Then alone can he transform the subject knowledge into its proper knowledge representation.
For transformation that each need to consider the following four steps:
1. Critical thinking and selection of teaching material.
2. Consideration about the main teaching points, and most appropriate teaching activities i.e. knowledge representations.
3. General and broad teaching procedures.
4. Modifications in teaching performance according to pupil’s characteristics and capabilities.
Shulman through his research derived that selection of teaching activities by the teacher trainee go beyond the textual material, they clarify the relationship of the teaching unit with the other units and total subject area.
The teacher who has mastery over the subject knowledge while teaching the school subject they acquaint the people with the entire discipline. The teachers expertise gained through his experiences has great effects on his teaching performance he/she precisely know the significant and insignificant parts of the teaching content.
Shulman provide a list of consideration included in pedagogical context knowledge.
1. Thinking about relationships among (i) subject knowledge essential for teacher (ii) pedagogical knowledge and (iii) knowledge of curriculum.
2. Subject knowledge expected of teachers and level related modification in it.
3. Relationship between school level subject knowledge and the knowledge of the subject acquired the teacher through his early studies at UG and PG level.
4. Thinking processes while learning a subject as a learner, and while teaching it as a teacher.
5. Knowledge known to the teacher and his teaching quality.
6. Structure of discipline its comprehension to teacher and the effect of understanding the structure on his understanding of the subject.
7. Teachers thinking processes while teaching unknown subject knowledge and known subject knowledge.
8. Teacher’s transformation of subject knowledge for helping the pupils to understand it.
9. Distinction in thinking process of teacher for selecting the subject content and teaching activities.
10. Teacher’s sources of teaching activities selected for teaching a specific content knowledge.
On the basis of the nature of these considerations, they can be classified into four categories:
1. Teacher’s thinking process about subject knowledge.
2. Teaching activities/skills selected by teachers for teaching a specific subject i.e., knowledge representation.
3. Teacher’s content enrichment.
4. Thinking about pupils and then thinking process in the context of subject knowledge.
Some important guiding principles propagated by Shulman are:
1. The subject knowledge of teacher trainee who undergo teacher education programme does not improve automatically some special efforts are needed for it.
2. It is necessary to strengthen knowledge of B .Ed. trainee’s in the subject and its discipline.
3. Teacher trainee’s approach and their belief towards the subject can be modified with the help of quality training.
4. Teacher must possess high level knowledge about the learning content before he teaches it.
5. Every teacher trainee must know and follow the steps for acquiring and practicing teaching methods in the context of subject and content.
The concept of content-cum-methodology is partially based on these guidelines. Therefore, these principles should find legitimate place in the teacher education programme. The practice teaching, field engagement and other practical activities help the teacher trainee’s to gain insight into the theory and practice of content cum methodology. This ultimately results in quality improvement in teaching learning.
The main purpose of inclusion of content-cum-methodology in teacher education programme:
1. Nature and the structure of disciple can be understandable through the study of content-cum-methodology.
2. Teacher trainees understand the importance of the study of curriculum, syllabus, and textbooks in the context of teaching performance.
3. Content-cum-methodology provides information about the process and methods for content enrichment.
4. It enables them to analyses the content to be taught.
5. Teaching methods and skills can be selected according to the nature of the content and pupil characteristics.
6. It facilitates self-evaluation of teachers and pupil evaluation and better understanding of teaching and learning.
Teaching has two inseparable aspects-‘subject knowledge’ and teaching procedures’. Therefore the initial decision of the teacher includes “what to teach?” and “how to teach?” Both these aspects influence the qualitative changes in the pupil’s behaviour.
It was generally believed and it is believed even today, that in teacher education “how?” is more important as “what?” Pupil learning chiefly depends on how knowledge acquisition activity is chiefly pupil’s activity and it depends on numerous factors like pupil’s intelligence, his previous knowledge, learning conditions, background etc. Teacher if consider all these factors “how?” aspect gain importance. It is true but the teacher has to structure his teaching by harmonizing teaching content and learning through teaching.
In content-cum-methodology the primary concern is to check the loss of knowledge. It promotes the creation of conditions for the transmission of teacher’s knowledge to the pupils and vis-a-vis.
There are some factors in the process of transmission of content-cum- methodology by the teacher to the pupils. Every teacher needs proper orientation and training in content-cum-methodology on the part of teacher. They should be ready to put in effort. They should critically study each content unit.
They should be able to see each aspect of the teaching through pupil’s eye. They should be able to view the pupils thinking process. If teachers acquire all these abilities and skills, content-cum-methodology will definitely enhance their teaching effectively.
Steps to Content-Cum-Methodology:
The concept, nature and importance of content-cum-methodology were discussed. There are certain important steps in practicing content-cum- methodology.
1. Understanding the nature and structure of the subject discipline.
2. Critical study of the curriculum, syllabus and text books as a whole.
3. Analysis of the content.
4. Enrichment of the content to teacher.
5. Pedagogical analysis of the content.
6. Integration of teaching procedures and content.
7. Selecting proper knowledge representation.
8. Pupil evaluation and the teachers self-evaluation in the context of content-cum-methodology.
TPAK frame work is the extension of Shulman’s idea of pedagogical content knowledge. TPAK attempts to identify the nature of knowledge required by teachers for technological integration in their teaching while addressing the complex multifaceted nature of teacher knowledge.
TPAK constitute the interplay of three primary knowledge’s- (1) Content knowledge (2) Pedagogical knowledge (3) Technological knowledge. The TPAK goes further by emphasizing the new kinds of knowledge that lies at the interaction between them representing four more knowledge bases to teacher applicable to teaching with technology- (1) Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) (2) Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK), and (3) Interaction of all three circles (4) Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK).
Effective Technological Integration for pedagogy around specific subject matter requires developing sensitivity to the dynamic, transactional relationship between these components of knowledge situated in unique context. Individual teachers, grade level school scientific factors, demographics, culture and other factors ensure that every situation is unique, and no single combination content, technology, and pedagogy will apply for every teacher, every course or every view of teaching.
Koehler and Mishra (2009) described in detail about content knowledge, pedagogical knowledge, technological knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, technological content knowledge, technological pedagogical knowledge and technological, pedagogical content knowledge.
This knowledge would include knowledge of concepts, theories, ideas organizational frameworks, knowledge of evidence, and proof, as well as established practices and approaches towards developing such knowledge.
Teachers deep knowledge about the processes and practices or approaches, methods and techniques of teaching and learning. They encompass, among other things, overall educational purposes, values and aims. This generic form of knowledge applies to understanding how students learn, general classroom management skills, and lesson planning and student’s assessment.
Knowledge of certain ways of thinking and working with technology, tools and resources. Working with technology can apply to all technology tools and resources. This includes understanding information technology. To recognize how information technology can assist the achievement of a goal and being able to continually adapt to changes in information technology.
Pedagogical Content Knowledge:
PCK is transformation of the subject matter for teaching, specifically according Shulman (1986). This transformation occurs as the teacher interprets the subject matter, finds multiple ways to represent it, and adopts. PCK covers the core business of teaching, learning, curriculum, assessment and reporting, such as the conditions that promote learning and the links among curriculum assessment and pedagogy.
Technological Content Knowledge:
An understanding of the manner in which technology and content influence and constrain one another. Teacher need to master more than the subject matter to teach, they must also have a deep understanding of the manner in which the subject matter (or the kinds of representation that can be constructed) can be changed by the application of particular technologies. Teachers need to understand which specific technologies are best suited for addressing subject matter in their domains and how the content and even changes the technology or vice versa.
Technological Pedagogical Knowledge:
An understanding of how teaching and learning can change when particular technologies are used in particular ways. This includes knowing the pedagogical affordances and constraints at a range of technological tools as they relate to disciplinary and developmentally appropriate pedagogical design and strategies.
Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge:
TPCK is the basis of effective teaching with technology, requiring and understanding of the representation of concepts using technologies, pedagogical techniques that use technologies in constructive ways to teach content, knowledge of what makes concepts difficult or easy to learn.
And, how technology can help redress some of the problems that students face, knowledge of students, prior knowledge and theories of epistemology, and knowledge of how technologies can be used to build on existing knowledge to develop new epistemology or strengthen old ones.