In this article we will discuss about the essay on Dehydration:- 1. Definition of Dehydration 2. Causes of Dehydration 3. Effects 4. Correction 5. Water Intoxication.
- Essay on the Definition of Dehydration
- Essay on the Causes of Dehydration
- Essay on the Effects of Dehydration
- Essay on the Correction of Dehydration
- Essay on the Water Intoxication Causing Dehydration
Essay # 1. Definition of Dehydration:
When the losses of water exceed the intake, the body’s water content is reduced. That is, the body is in negative water balance and the condition is known as dehydration.
Essay # 2. Causes of Dehydration:
a. Primary Dehydration:
(i) Simple deprivation of water from desert travel, extreme weakness and mental patients refusing to drink causes dehydration. It occurs more quickly in fever or in high temperature of the environment.
(ii) Excessive water loss due to vomiting, prolonged diarrhea, excretion of large quantities of urine or sweat.
In water depletion, the concentration of extracellular fluid increases. Water is drawn from the cells and both extracellular and intracellular compartments shrink. Extreme thirst results, the individual complains of hot and dry body, dry tongue.
b. Secondary Dehydration:
The concentration of electrolytes of the body fluids is maintained constant through the elimination or retention of water. The reduction or increase in the total electrolytes, which affects chiefly the basic radicals Na (extracellular) and K (intracellular) and the acid radicals HCO3 and Cl2 is accompanied by a corresponding increase or decrease in the volume of body water.
This causes intracellular edema. There is slowing of circulation and impairment of urinal function. The individual becomes weaker.
c. Dehydration due to Injection of Hypertonic Solution:
When a highly concentrated sugar or salt solution is injected into the body, the osmotic pressure of blood will increase. This results in the flow of fluid from the tissues into the blood until equilibrium sets in. Consequently, the blood volume increases. This increased blood volume soon returns to normal by the loss of excess material through excretion. This causes a net loss of body water producing dehydration.
Essay # 3. Effects of Dehydration:
a. Loss of weight due to the reduction in tissue water.
b. Disturbances in acid-base balance.
c. Rise in the non-protein nitrogen of blood.
d. Rise in the plasma protein concentration and of chloride.
e. Rise in body temperature due to reduction in circulating fluid.
f. Increased pulse rate and reduced cardiac output.
g. Dryness, wrinkling and looseness of skin.
h. Exhaustion and collapse.
Essay # 4. Correction of Dehydration:
a. Ordinarily sodium chloride solution may be given parenterally to repair the losses.
b. In the case of the removal of a fluid high in sodium and bicarbonate during fluid and electrolyte losses originating from the intestinal tract (as in prolonged diarrhea, pancreatic or biliary fistulas, etc.) a mixture of two-third isotonic saline solution and one-third sodium lactate solution (M/6) should be administered intravenously.
c. But dehydration is a problem in diabetes mellitus, Addison’s disease, uremia, extensive burns and shock. This type of dehydration cannot be corrected by the application of above two processes.
Essay # 5. Water Intoxication Causing Dehydration:
This condition is caused by the excess of water retention in the body and can occur due to renal failure, hyper-secretion of ADH and excessive administration of fluids parenterally. Symptoms of water intoxication are headache, nausea and muscular weakness.
This condition also exhibits the decreased levels of hemoglobin and plasma proteins, lowered plasma electrolytes, increased urinary volume with low sp. gravity. The condition is treated by withholding fluids by mouth and administering 3 to 5 per cent hypertonic saline.