Essay on Sodium:- 1. Physiological Functions of Sodium 2. Sources of Sodium 3. Distribution 4. Daily Requirement 5. Absorption 6. Blood Sodium 7. Excretion 8. Disease State.
- Essay on the Physiological Functions of Sodium
- Essay on the Sources of Sodium
- Essay on the Distribution of Sodium
- Essay on the Daily Requirement of Sodium
- Essay on the Absorption of Sodium
- Essay on the Blood Sodium
- Essay on the Excretion of Sodium
- Essay on the Disease State of Sodium
Essay # 1. Physiological Functions of Sodium:
i. It is the major component of the cations of the extracellular fluid and exists in the body in association with the anions chloride, bicarbonate, phosphate and lactate.
ii. It is largely associated with chloride and bicarbonate in regulation of acid-base equilibrium.
iii. It maintains the osmotic pressure of the body fluid and thus protects the body against excessive fluid loss.
iv. Sodium ion plays an important role in the absorption of glucose and galactose as well as amino acids from the small intestine.
v. It maintains the normal water balance and distribution.
vi. Sodium ion is involved in initiating and maintaining the heart-beat.
vii. It maintains the normal neuromuscular function.
viii. It functions in the permeability of the cells.
Essay # 2. Sources of Sodium:
Essay # 3. Distribution of Sodium:
About one-third of the total sodium content of the body is present in the inorganic portion of the skeleton. Most of the sodium is found in the extracellular fluid.
Essay # 4. Daily Requirement of Sodium:
For adults the daily requirement is 5 to 15 gm. In temperate region, the sodium chloride intake is less but in tropical countries the intake is more. A person suffering from hypertension should not take more than 1 gm. of sodium.
Essay # 5. Absorption of Sodium:
Normally, sodium is practically completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Less than 2 per cent of ingested sodium is eliminated in the feces. In subjects with diarrhea, large amounts are lost in the feces.
Essay # 6. Blood Sodium:
The normal level of sodium is 136-146 mEq/L. In man, erythrocytes contain little or no sodium. Aldosterone increases plasma sodium level.
Essay # 7. Excretion of Sodium:
The daily losses of sodium are as follows:
About 95 per cent of the sodium leaving the body is excreted in the urine since sodium is readily absorbed in the intestine. Therefore, feces contain very little except in diarrhea. There is the variable loss of sodium by way of the sweat.
Heavy exercise, environmental heat and high fever can cause excessive losses of sweat which leads to more sodium losses. Loss of sodium by excessive sweating causes heat cramps with the intense and painful contractions of skeletal muscle of men working hard in hot humid climates.
Essay # 8. Disease State of Sodium:
i. Adrenocortical steroids regulate the metabolism of sodium. In the insufficiency of adrenocortical steroids, the serum sodium level is decreased with an increase in sodium excretion.
ii. In chronic renal disease when acidosis exists, sodium depletion occurs due to poor tubular reabsorption of sodium as well as to the loss of sodium in the buffering of acids.
iii. In case, a person is not adapted to a high environmental temperature, large amount of sodium is lost in the sweat due to extreme sweating developing muscular cramps of the extremities and abdomen, headaches, nausea and diarrhea.
iv. In hyponatremia, the serum sodium level is below normal. This causes severe dehydration, reduced blood pressure, decreased blood volume and circulatory failure.
The following clinical conditions will develop:
(a) Prolonged vomiting and diarrhea resulting in excessive loss of digestive juices rich in sodium ion.
(b) Chronic renal disease with acidosis due to poor reabsorption of sodium in the tubules.
(c) Adrenocortical deficiency leading to Addison’s disease.
(d) Loss of weight due to loss of water also.
v. In Hypernatremia, the serum sodium level is higher than normal.
This occurs in:
(a) Hyperactivity of adrenal cortex as in Cashing’s syndrome,
(b) Prolonged treatment of cortisone and ACTH as well as sex hormones.
The symptoms of hypernatremia are:
(1) Increased retention of water in the body.
(2) Increase in blood volume.
(3) Increase in blood pressure.
vi. In certain stages of pregnancy, the steroid hormones cause the retention of sodium as well as water which results in gain in weight.